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Little is known about how assistive technology standards have been implemented in preservice teacher preparation. This chapter provides a review of the literature…
Little is known about how assistive technology standards have been implemented in preservice teacher preparation. This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning the importance of evidence-based practice and the research base supporting assistive technology in order to set the context for reporting the results of a comprehensive national study of the status of assistive technology state standards for teachers in all of the 50 states (plus Washington, DC). This chapter includes the findings of the study, the research that the study was based upon, and a review of relevant research in the fields of assistive technology, educational technology, and evidence-based practice. Only six states reported having AT standards and six states reported having AT competencies. Three states reported having both standards and competencies, yielding nine unique states (out of 51) with AT standards and/or AT competencies. Regression analyses to determine the relationship between the study variables and national reading and math performance of students with disabilities were inconclusive. The implications of the study findings and recommendations for future research are presented.
This chapter focuses on the increasing use of both assistive technology (AT) and teacher assistants (TAs) to support students with disabilities within the inclusive classroom, and why it is vital that teacher assistants have appropriate training in the area of AT. A description of assistive technology and its role in inclusion of students with special needs is provided along with a description of training in assistive technology that was undertaken with teacher assistants. Implications for training and support of teacher assistants in the area of assistive technology are also discussed.
This chapter describes assistive technology (AT) and inclusive education and examines the juncture where AT works to support the inclusion of students with disabilities in…
This chapter describes assistive technology (AT) and inclusive education and examines the juncture where AT works to support the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream settings, including classrooms, home and community settings. AT consists of a range of devices and services which work to support students to augment existing abilities, compensate for or bypass difficulties they may experience. Some AT has been specifically developed for functional use, while other, particularly emerging technology, can be adapted for, or used, in an assistive capacity. Where the AT promotes social interaction, curriculum access and the ability to express understanding, there is the potential for heightened inclusion in the classroom.
This chapter offers descriptions of many current uses of video conferencing technology for the delivery of assistive technology (AT) services at a distance. It begins with…
This chapter offers descriptions of many current uses of video conferencing technology for the delivery of assistive technology (AT) services at a distance. It begins with definitions of remote AT services, virtual teams and virtual teamwork and moves to a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of remote AT supports for individuals, teams and organisations. A review of research regarding the outcomes of remote services helps to clarify ways that assistive technology providers can enhance function and build agency capacity by working, at least in part, in a virtual support environment. The chapter provides a discussion of various aspects of virtual teamwork that affects how individuals work together remotely as well as potential barriers to the provision of remote AT services. Multiple examples are provided throughout as well as descriptions of specific features of video conference technology options that should be considered before adoption. A planning form for the integration of remote assistive technology supports into the array of AT support services is included.
While many low-income countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), providing for the needs of students…
While many low-income countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), providing for the needs of students with disabilities in these countries is often difficult. Many governments in low-income countries experience difficulties in obtaining and supplying appropriate assistive devices and products to people in need; have issues with poor infrastructure and in general lack appropriate knowledge around the types of assistive technologies (ATs) available and how to use these to assist people with disabilities. The authors of this chapter will discuss the use of low-tech AT for students with disabilities in low-income countries, the benefits for inclusion and the difficulties involved. Reference to India will be used to explore the use of low-tech AT in a low-income country. Included in the chapter will be information on an innovative problem-based learning project implemented in six countries (five of which may be considered low-income countries), undertaken with preservice and in-service teachers.
In this chapter, we present the findings of the National Assistive Technology Research Institute (NATRI). The institute was funded in October 2000 as a cooperative…
In this chapter, we present the findings of the National Assistive Technology Research Institute (NATRI). The institute was funded in October 2000 as a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs to take a comprehensive look at the factors related to the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of assistive technology (AT) services in schools. We present the data from seven research areas: (1) the status of AT use in schools, (2) policies and procedures in the development and delivery of AT services, (3) AT decision-making by IEP teams, (4) integration of AT use in learning environments (facilitate instruction, access to curriculum), (5) effects of AT use on academic, social, functional performance of students, (6) training and technical support needed by persons implementing AT, and (7) the extent to which institutions of higher education (IHEs) were developing AT knowledge and skills. In each area we summarize the lessons learned as a result of the research to assist policy-makers, researchers, and practitioners in improving AT services and delivery systems.
The effectiveness of different types of adult learning practices for promoting practitioner and parent use of different kinds of assistive technology and adaptations with…
The effectiveness of different types of adult learning practices for promoting practitioner and parent use of different kinds of assistive technology and adaptations with young children of 18–105 months of age was the focus of a research synthesis described in this chapter. Six operationally defined adult learning methods and between two and five practices for each method were used to code and analyze the results for both adult (practitioner and parent) and child outcomes. The assistive technology and adaptations that were the focus of training included speech generative devices (e.g., CheapTalk), computers (e.g., adapted keyboards), and switch-activated devices and toys. Results showed that a combination of five or six of the most effective adult learning method practices were associated with the largest differences in both adult and child outcomes, but that few studies included the most effective practices. The relationship between the number of practices and the study outcomes was moderated by the type of training (individual vs. group) and whether the training included in vivo use of the devices with children with disabilities. The results point to at least several factors that explain non-use of assistive technology with young children with disabilities and highlight the need for better designed and implemented training.
The UK government is committed to preventative technologies and increasingly they are being incorporated into residential services for people with learning disabilities…
The UK government is committed to preventative technologies and increasingly they are being incorporated into residential services for people with learning disabilities. This paper describes an evaluation of a sample of settings in which various assistive technology (AT) devices have been installed following the assessment of individual residents' needs. The impact of this on residents' objective quality of life was assessed using a range of quantitative measures and through some qualitative questions. Despite some positive consequences of the AT being reported by staff in response to the qualitative items, there was no significant impact on any of the quantitative measures. In isolation, AT does not appear to be sufficient to significantly improve objective quality of life outcomes for people with learning disabilities in residential services. Equally, AT does not appear to reduce objective quality of life outcomes. The challenge to service providers is to ensure that the introduction of AT and any associated change to staffing levels or support procedures translates into improvements in residents' overall quality of life. To detect such improvements future research might have to broaden the range of quantitative methods used and supplement them with qualitative techniques.
Assistive Technology (AT) helps address social and economic barriers and can positively impact the lives of people with disabilities. Single-entry point (SEP) systems have…
Assistive Technology (AT) helps address social and economic barriers and can positively impact the lives of people with disabilities. Single-entry point (SEP) systems have been shown as successful models for reducing barriers encountered when acquiring and using AT. This chapter highlights a mixed method case study in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), which sought to explore barriers consumers faced in acquiring and being satisfied with AT, as well as the potential for an SEP system in NL. NL is an Atlantic Canadian province characterized by a small population dispersed over a large island and remote mainland. Data were collected using individual interviews with disability service providers in community and post-secondary settings across the province and a survey to assess barriers to accessing AT, AT utilization, and satisfaction among consumers with disabilities. Many consumers and service providers demonstrated that they recognized the benefits of AT but expressed dissatisfaction with existing programs and services citing cost, lack of knowledge, training, and funding subsidies as the most significant barriers to access. Improving access to AT is a necessary step toward enhancing education and employment opportunities, facilitating social inclusion, and optimizing overall health for people with disabilities. Investigating the feasibility of SEP programs modeled after American and Australian initiatives should be part of future planning for Canada, especially in small urban, rural, and remote areas where demand for provision of AT is under-resourced.
The importance and weighting given to certain factors by occupational therapists, during the assessment process for assistive technology (AT), may have an affect on the…
The importance and weighting given to certain factors by occupational therapists, during the assessment process for assistive technology (AT), may have an affect on the eventual outcome for the client. Factors examined included risks around the user, carer and their environments, training and knowledge of AT, policy issues on provision and actual practice, choice of AT and whether AT has an impact on care provision. Out of 50 anonymous questionnaires sent out to collect information, 36 were returned direct to the researcher by stamped addressed envelope. 19 respondents from health and 17 from social services provided a good balance and allowed an opportunity for cross comparison. Areas of practice around multidisciplinary team working and client follow‐up were found to be weak. Frequency of social alarm referrals where no lifeline existed was low. Thematic analysis from feedback also identified concerns over knowledge and awareness of assistive technology. Differences between health and social services were detected. The research identified that many of the factors were being considered by occupational therapists, however, some of these factors were not permeating through to actual practice and application, which highlighted inconsistency in OT practice and the effect of local practice conditions on AT prescription.