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This research provides empirically‐based, detailed information on race as a determinant of the relationship between chronic illness/disability and assistive device use by…
This research provides empirically‐based, detailed information on race as a determinant of the relationship between chronic illness/disability and assistive device use by elderly persons. The database is the 1994 wave of the National Long Term Care Survey. The important findings are: whites are more likely to use home modification devices and blacks are more likely to use portable devices; chronic conditions vary in their influence on the use of assistive devices; the joint presence of diabetes, heart conditions or hypertension with ADLs and IADLs motivates greater assistive device use; the relationships between chronic health conditions and assistive device use vary by race; for blacks, income has the largest impact on assistive device purchases; half of the racial differences in the probability of using assistive devices is explained by differences in sociodemographic characteristics and the rest is explained, in part, by discrimination.
This study investigates how environmental conditions for development in reading, as well as support in Braille and assistive technology, have influenced the literacy of 11…
This study investigates how environmental conditions for development in reading, as well as support in Braille and assistive technology, have influenced the literacy of 11 pupils in Norwegian mainstream schools. It was recommended that these pupils learn to read both Braille and print because of their severe visual impairments ie. a visual acuity of 0.1 (20/200), or complicated visual functioning. Their reading and participation in a modern society depends on extensive use of assistive technology. The analysis is based on the pupils' coping strategies in reading and interviews with pupils, teachers and parents. Findings show that the pupils have appropriate reading devices for Braille and print, but technical aid for Braille is infrequently used. Lack of competence in Braille and reading devices at school and home will influence stimulation of literacy and choice of reading media. Possibilities in assistive technology are thus not fully realised. Each pupil's individual needs, as well as ways in which support and stimulation could be provided, should therefore be addressed when recommending reading media and devices.
This chapter focuses on the increasing use of both assistive technology (AT) and teacher assistants (TAs) to support students with disabilities within the inclusive…
This chapter focuses on the increasing use of both assistive technology (AT) and teacher assistants (TAs) to support students with disabilities within the inclusive classroom, and why it is vital that teacher assistants have appropriate training in the area of AT. A description of assistive technology and its role in inclusion of students with special needs is provided along with a description of training in assistive technology that was undertaken with teacher assistants. Implications for training and support of teacher assistants in the area of assistive technology are also discussed.
This chapter describes assistive technology (AT) and inclusive education and examines the juncture where AT works to support the inclusion of students with disabilities in…
This chapter describes assistive technology (AT) and inclusive education and examines the juncture where AT works to support the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream settings, including classrooms, home and community settings. AT consists of a range of devices and services which work to support students to augment existing abilities, compensate for or bypass difficulties they may experience. Some AT has been specifically developed for functional use, while other, particularly emerging technology, can be adapted for, or used, in an assistive capacity. Where the AT promotes social interaction, curriculum access and the ability to express understanding, there is the potential for heightened inclusion in the classroom.
While many low-income countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), providing for the needs of students…
While many low-income countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), providing for the needs of students with disabilities in these countries is often difficult. Many governments in low-income countries experience difficulties in obtaining and supplying appropriate assistive devices and products to people in need; have issues with poor infrastructure and in general lack appropriate knowledge around the types of assistive technologies (ATs) available and how to use these to assist people with disabilities. The authors of this chapter will discuss the use of low-tech AT for students with disabilities in low-income countries, the benefits for inclusion and the difficulties involved. Reference to India will be used to explore the use of low-tech AT in a low-income country. Included in the chapter will be information on an innovative problem-based learning project implemented in six countries (five of which may be considered low-income countries), undertaken with preservice and in-service teachers.
Assistive technology has the potential to enable people with disabilities to live, learn, and work more independently through the application of specialized technologies…
Assistive technology has the potential to enable people with disabilities to live, learn, and work more independently through the application of specialized technologies that reduce, eliminate, or minimize the impact of a disability. This chapter provides an overview of the international application of assistive technology, summarizes the purpose of this new book series, and highlights the chapters in this volume that reflect the most recent research concerning the efficacy of assistive technology.
This chapter offers descriptions of many current uses of video conferencing technology for the delivery of assistive technology (AT) services at a distance. It begins with…
This chapter offers descriptions of many current uses of video conferencing technology for the delivery of assistive technology (AT) services at a distance. It begins with definitions of remote AT services, virtual teams and virtual teamwork and moves to a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of remote AT supports for individuals, teams and organisations. A review of research regarding the outcomes of remote services helps to clarify ways that assistive technology providers can enhance function and build agency capacity by working, at least in part, in a virtual support environment. The chapter provides a discussion of various aspects of virtual teamwork that affects how individuals work together remotely as well as potential barriers to the provision of remote AT services. Multiple examples are provided throughout as well as descriptions of specific features of video conference technology options that should be considered before adoption. A planning form for the integration of remote assistive technology supports into the array of AT support services is included.
This study aims to establish a correlation between a patient’s mini mental state examination (MMSE) score and their ability to remember how to use common assistive…
This study aims to establish a correlation between a patient’s mini mental state examination (MMSE) score and their ability to remember how to use common assistive dressing devices.
The study was a prospective, cross-sectional and correlational study. A final sample of 63 patients formed the study. Patients’ cognition was measured using the MMSE, and a new assessment tool was developed to assess patients’ ability to use three assistive devices and piloted on 15 patients to address normality, reliability, validity and clinical usefulness. Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient was used to establish direct correlations between the MMSE score and the assessment tool score. Eta squared was used to calculate the effect size to achieve an indication of the difference between the groups. Ethical approval had been granted by the regional ethics committee. The null hypothesis states that patients with an MMSE score of 22 or less show no difference in their ability to safely and appropriately use assistive devices provided and demonstrated by an occupational therapist than patients with an MMSE score of 23 or higher.
The null hypothesis was rejected and patients with an MMSE score of 22 or less showed a significant difficulty in their ability to use the three devices. Correlation coefficients showed significant positive correlations between MMSE scores and assistive devices scoring tool results for all three devices: Helping hand (r = 6.677, n = 60, p = 0.01), shoe horn (r = 0.649, n = 54, p = 0.01) and sock aid (r = 0.877, n = 54, p = 0.01).
The study is in an Irish context and demonstrated primary, objective evidence of the impact of impaired cognition on functional ability. Patients with cognitive deficits pose a larger safety challenge but still should be afforded an opportunity to use and benefit from assistive devices. The assessment tool is a new and unique instrument and although requires further development, may conceivably act not just as an assessment instrument but also an effective treatment tool.
– The purpose of this paper is to present the viewpoint of the authors on the use of the iPad as an assistive technology tool for post-secondary students with disabilities.
The purpose of this paper is to present the viewpoint of the authors on the use of the iPad as an assistive technology tool for post-secondary students with disabilities.
Although this paper is not classified as a research article, the viewpoints discussed by the authors are related to a pilot study and continuing case study research they are conducting.
The authors indicate that they have been surprised at the positive results they have observed in the iPad implementation, particularly with students moving to the iPad to continue their studies at the completion of the research.
This paper discusses the opportunities and limitations afforded by the use of the iPad with post-secondary students as well as suggestions for implementation.
After decades of experience in the field of assistive technology, the authors are becoming convinced that the iPad offers significant opportunities for learning for students with disabilities. One of the exciting parts of being involved in these iPad studies has been to observe: the transformation of student study skills, the increased student self-discovery around how they learn, and the increase in student confidence in technology use. Perhaps rather than labeling the iPad as a mobile device or an assistive technology tool, the authors need to look at different terminology to define it. The ownership of this device by post-secondary students is growing every year, and it is a device that does not set students with disabilities apart from their peers. It is a device that can effectively support student learning through built in accessibility features and the use of commonly available and used apps. Perhaps using the term “equalizing technology” to describe the iPad might be more appropriate.
This paper discusses the opportunities and limitations afforded by the use of the iPad with post-secondary students as well as suggestions for implementation. This is a rapidly developing area in universities and colleges around the world.
Technology, particularly for students with disabilities, is often viewed as “the great equalizer” (Wyer, 2001, p. 1). It is perceived as a means of providing access and…
Technology, particularly for students with disabilities, is often viewed as “the great equalizer” (Wyer, 2001, p. 1). It is perceived as a means of providing access and opportunity, promoting independence, and encouraging empowerment (Edyburn, Higgins, & Boone, 2005b). Technology can greatly benefit students with disabilities and solve many of the challenges these students face. Perhaps, this was put most profusely by former Assistant Secretary of the United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Judy Heumann, “For most of us, technology makes things easier. For a person with a disability, it makes things possible” (Edyburn et al., 2005b, p. xiii). The potential of technology is enormous for students with disabilities. For example, technology can provide a voice to those students who may not otherwise have one per their disability (i.e., AAC devices), read a text to a student who struggles with reading as a result of his/her disability (i.e., text-to-speech devices, screen readers, and Reading Pens), grant access to a computer and other electronic tools (i.e., switches and speech recognition), and offer low-tech devices such as pencil grips or lined paper to aid students in writing.