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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Courtney J. Linn

In today's global economy, the public routinely engages in international financial transactions via the internet. This has created opportunities for online fraud. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's global economy, the public routinely engages in international financial transactions via the internet. This has created opportunities for online fraud. The paper aims to explain what policymakers who are serious about providing crime victims with an effective restitution remedy can learn from the US Government's experience with forfeiture.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper, by an Assistant US Attorrney, combines narrative with argument and analysis.

Findings

Existing restitution law is ineffective. Prosecutors have used forfeiture laws as an indirect mean of providing compensation for crime victims, but forfeiture law has its limits. The better approach would be for Congress to authorize the pretrial seizure and restraint of assets directly for restitution, utilizing standards comparable to those that exist in current forfeiture law. To address situations where a defendant places money overseas to avoid restitution, Congress should enact international restitution laws comparable to those that exist in forfeiture to facilitate the recovery of those assets. Without these kinds of reforms, the government will continue to struggle to collect restitution.

Originality/value

The paper provides information of value to all involved with international financial transactions and law enforcement activities.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Fabio Ramazzini Bechara and Gabriel Monti Manzano

This paper aims to answer three questions: Is the presumption of innocence principle in risk? How to balance it with the burden and standard of proof? Does the asset civil…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to answer three questions: Is the presumption of innocence principle in risk? How to balance it with the burden and standard of proof? Does the asset civil forfeiture procedure imply a criminal charge? These are the main constitutional issues that have hampered the processing of, and consensus regarding, the regulation of the asset civil forfeiture in Brazil, the subject of bill 5681/2013 of the Chamber of Deputies and bill 255/2015 of the Federal Senate. The hypothesis is that the property or the possession of illegal assets implies a violation of the Brazilian Federal Constitution, which presumes good faith and non-abused use to be legitimated. This study intends to enrich this discussion with the current American debate, its main lessons and concerns to individual procedural safeguards.

Design/methodology/approach

There are some questions that should be addressed: Is the presumption of innocence principle in risk? How to balance it with the burden and standard of proof? Does the asset civil forfeiture procedure imply a criminal charge? Thus, this paper aims to discuss these questions, which are the main constitutional issues that have hampered the processing of, and consensus regarding, the regulation of the asset civil forfeiture in Brazil, the subject of bill 5681/2013 of the Chamber of Deputies and bill 255/2015 of the Federal Senate. The hypothesis is that the property or the possession of illegal assets implies a violation of the Brazilian Federal Constitution, which presumes good faith and non-abused use to be legitimated. This study intends to enrich this analysis with the current American debate about asset civil forfeiture provisions, its main lessons and concerns to individual procedural safeguards.

Findings

This paper focused on answering three questions: Is the presumption of innocence principle in risk? How to balance it with the burden and standard of proof? Does the asset civil forfeiture procedure imply a criminal charge? The authors sustained the constitutionality of the asset civil forfeiture from a Brazilian perspective, based on three main arguments: First, asset civil forfeiture is based on the non-abused use of property rights constitutional provision. Second, asset civil forfeiture does not imply on or presume a criminal charge. Finally, asset civil forfeiture is not based on the same standard of proof as a criminal proceeding.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is based on its current debate, the regulation of the asset civil forfeiture in Brazil, which is subject of bill 5681/2013 of the Chamber of Deputies and bill 255/2015 of the Federal Senate. The hypothesis is that the property or the possession of illegal assets implies a violation of the Brazilian Federal Constitution, which presumes good faith and non-abused use to be legitimated.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

John L. Worrall

The argument is presented that, is contrast to expectations, the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act (CAFRA) of 2000 will not be responsible for significant change in the…

1006

Abstract

The argument is presented that, is contrast to expectations, the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act (CAFRA) of 2000 will not be responsible for significant change in the practice of civil asset forfeiture, that the Act is a sheep in wolf's clothing. While it has ushered in some important procedural changes, CAFRA does not address several of what critics perceive to be the most significant problems associated with civil asset forfeiture, among them are a questionable standard of proof, equitable sharing, and the so‐called “taint doctrine.” Thus, it is likely that civil asset forfeiture will continue to be a valuable law enforcement tool in the war on drugs.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Olusola Joshua Olujobi

The aim of this study is to investigate how Nigeria can seek legal assistance on recovery of its stolen assets to reduce corruption and to ensure no sheltered havens for…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate how Nigeria can seek legal assistance on recovery of its stolen assets to reduce corruption and to ensure no sheltered havens for incomes from corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a conceptual method by using existing literature with the application of doctrinal legal research technique. The research likewise uses primary and secondary sources of legislations such as legislative provisions, case laws and the provisions of Chapter V of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the process of asset recovery. The study compares the United Kingdom, USA, Hong Kong in China, South Africa and Nigeria proceeds of corruption recovery laws to gain basic legal features that would be beneficial to Nigeria in reforming its anti-corruption laws.

Findings

The principle of territorial sovereignty under the international law makes the offence of corruption not punishable outside the jurisdiction of the state where the offence was committed. As a result, some developed states boost their economy with these proceeds and the developing states are impoverished. There is also an allegation of discrepancies in the figures of funds recovered by the anti-corruption agencies. Thus, there is the need for transparency; law on civil forfeiture of proceeds of corruption; bilateral treaties; and mutual legal assistance on investigation, confiscation among countries for tracing and returning of proceeds of corruption.

Research limitations/implications

The estimates of the volume of assets looted from Nigeria vary widely because of the complexity of collecting data on proceeds of corruption as official statistics on proceeds of corruption recovered do not exist as each anti-corruption agency occasionally makes pronouncements on the volume of assets recovered without any breakdown in terms of assets seized, nature of assets and their locations and its values. Such data would aid policymakers to measure the effectiveness of the present assets legislations and to enhance its effectiveness.

Practical implications

Considering the clandestine manners corruption is being committed, it is tasking to correctly evaluate the amount of money stolen so, their economic impacts on the nation’s economy.

Social implications

Absence of accurate data would aid policymakers to measure the effectiveness of the present assets legislations and to enhance its effectiveness.

Originality/value

The study offers modules on management of proceeds of corruption by establishing “Assets Management Commission” and “Proceeds of Corruption Forfeiture Funds” for reparation of victims’ of corruption. The study suggests the necessity for civil forfeiture of proceeds of corruption, which is presently lacking, and creation of Proceeds of Corruption Recovery and Management Commission to manage such proceeds and advocate establishment of “Proceeds of Corruption Forfeiture Funds” for reparation of victims of corruption.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Gregory M. Vecchi and Robert T. Sigler

Forfeiture of assets has become an important tool in drug interdiction. Forfeiture provides substantial funds to law enforcement agencies and can produce goal…

1423

Abstract

Forfeiture of assets has become an important tool in drug interdiction. Forfeiture provides substantial funds to law enforcement agencies and can produce goal displacement. A survey was conducted of all members of three task forces dedicated to drug interdiction in the Miami, Florida area regarding the goals and the value of asset forfeiture. While all subjects endorsed the goals relating to the punishment of drug dealers as most important, federal officers not assigned to joint task forces valued economic benefits to the agency less than federal agents assigned to joint task forces who, in turn, valued economic benefits less than non‐federal task force agents.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Anastasia Suhartati Lukito

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unexplained wealth inside the corporation and to initiate and apply unexplained wealth order in the Indonesian corporation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unexplained wealth inside the corporation and to initiate and apply unexplained wealth order in the Indonesian corporation based on the Indonesian legal system and prevailing laws. An effective tool needs to be implemented because of the facts that numerous corporate illegal activities lead to economic and financial crime. Meanwhile, there are difficulties to implement the corporate criminal liability. Non-conviction-based asset forfeiture will be a way out to deal with the current condition.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores and analyzes the Indonesian legal system, particularly a non-conviction-based asset forfeiture for corporate illegal activities. This paper is based on the research paper conducted with the legal normative approach.

Findings

Non-conviction-based asset forfeiture through unexplained wealth order will be an effective tool and a revolutionary pattern in the crime prevention perspective dealing with corporate crime. Corporate criminal liability in anti-corruption regime can be viewed from two perspectives by combining and integrating crime prevention approach as well as the repressive approach. The Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation number 13 of 2016 is a breakthrough in the criminal justice system to redesign case handling procedure toward corporate crime. It needs to be supported by precise asset forfeiture law. Furthermore it is necessity to strengthening and built corporations with moral and ethical business values.

Practical implications

This paper can be a source to explore the unexplained wealth that can occur in the corporation and the way to overcome it through unexplained wealth order and non-conviction-based asset forfeiture.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by initiating a non-conviction-based asset forfeiture, which is implementing the in rem proceeding, to make sure the crime does not pay and the victim and society suffer less because of the corporate crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Constance Gikonyo

The purpose of this paper is to consider the applicability and challenges of using asset forfeiture mechanisms in taking away the illicit gains of Somali piracy for ransoms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the applicability and challenges of using asset forfeiture mechanisms in taking away the illicit gains of Somali piracy for ransoms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a desk research on the issue. It is based on analysis of the key principles in the area and relevant literature on the subject.

Findings

Asset forfeiture mechanisms can be used to facilitate the seizure of Somali piracy proceeds. It is applicable to those who directly or indirectly benefited from piracy: the foot soldiers, financiers and other beneficiaries. This would enable withdrawal of piracy re-investment capital and hence may act as a disincentive for current and prospective offenders.

Research limitations/implications

For the initiative to work, various states and other actors need to cooperate. However, incentives such as corruption, the personal interests of individuals and states that have benefited from Somali piracy, may make them unwilling to collaborate. This would definitely hinder the implementation and effectiveness of using asset forfeiture.

Originality/value

Much of the literature on Somali piracy for ransoms has focussed on maritime solutions. Further, authors and organisations have advocated for following the money trail. As a result, consideration of the benefits and challenges of doing so needs to be done. This paper seeks to fill this gap.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Michelle Gallant

In November 1998, the Home Office Working Group on Confiscation, a group convened in 1990 to monitor the operation of confiscation and money‐laundering legislation…

Abstract

In November 1998, the Home Office Working Group on Confiscation, a group convened in 1990 to monitor the operation of confiscation and money‐laundering legislation, released its third report, a comprehensive examination of the confiscation and money‐laundering control regimes in England and Wales. The report recommends numerous changes, some of which fill gaps in the present framework and others that radically alter the methods deployed to ensure that criminal profits do not lie secure in the hands of their owners. Previous reports heavily influenced subsequent legislative developments so it is anticipated that this document foreshadows the legislative course to be pursued by the Labour Government in the near future.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

David Lusty

‘It is incorrect to view the recovery of the profits of unlawful activity as a part of the criminal justice process and, as such, justifiable only on the basis of a prior…

Abstract

‘It is incorrect to view the recovery of the profits of unlawful activity as a part of the criminal justice process and, as such, justifiable only on the basis of a prior finding of guilt according to the criminal standard of proof beyond reasonable doubt.’

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Fletcher N. Baldwin

The practice of civil in rem forfeiture has roots in ancient codes and commandments. It is found in the common law doctrine of deodand and in the laws of the nomadic…

Abstract

The practice of civil in rem forfeiture has roots in ancient codes and commandments. It is found in the common law doctrine of deodand and in the laws of the nomadic agricultural Israelites. In the second section of the Torah or Book of the Law known as the Book of Exodus there are three groups of laws: (1) the Ten Commandments or Decalogue; (2) Ritual Decalogue; and (3) the Book of the Covenant or the Covenant Code. The Covenant Code is thought to be the earliest lengthy codification of primitive law among the Hebrews; it contains detailed laws for all phases of ancient Israelite life: religious, moral, commercial and humanitarian and crime and penalties. Chapter 21 includes the lex talionis or law of retaliation, a stipulated legal punishment appropriate to the injury, and the assignment of in rem.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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