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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2010

Gina de la Cuesta

Claims that people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are overrepresented in offending populations and are more likely to commit crimes than others are explored in this…

Abstract

Claims that people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are overrepresented in offending populations and are more likely to commit crimes than others are explored in this review. Evidence to date makes these claims difficult to substantiate, although methodological difficulties make this area particularly challenging. ASD does not appear to account for a large number of crimes in society, though certain characteristics may render those on the spectrum vulnerable to offending. Comorbid psychiatric conditions such as depression and psychosis, when present in a person that additionally has ASD, are important risk factors. Once in the criminal justice system, people with ASD are often misunderstood and open to bullying. Very little is known about what treatment programmes are effective for offenders in this population. This review summarises some of the important studies in this field.

Details

Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0927

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Jennifer S. Singh

Purpose – This chapter discusses the proposed changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), which eliminates Asperger's disorder (AD) and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses the proposed changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), which eliminates Asperger's disorder (AD) and replaces it as “autism spectrum disorder.” Implications of these changes on the identity of adults with AD and the influence of everyday life experiences will be addressed.

Methodology/approach – This research is based on 19 interviews with adults diagnosed or self-diagnosed with AD. Central themes surrounding issues of identity and everyday life experiences were determined using grounded theory approaches.

Findings – This study demonstrates how the diagnosis and self-diagnosis of AD is fused with individual identity. It also shows how Asperger identity is positively embraced. The proposed changes to eliminate AD in DSM-V threaten these assertions of Asperger identity, which could potentially enhance stigma experienced by people with AD. Regardless of its removal, Asperger identity must be considered within the broader context of people's everyday lives and how experiences in social interaction and communication can be strong agents of identity construction.

Social implications – The proposed changes to eliminate AD in DSM-V is a social issue that will impact individuals with Asperger's and their families, as well as health-care professionals, health insurers, researchers, state agencies, and educational providers.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter offers a unique insight into identity construction based on the diagnosis and self-diagnosis of AD.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Ekkehart Staufenberg

This paper is based on seminar, workshop and lecture materials presented at national and international conferences, and follows an invitation to cover this topic as part…

Abstract

This paper is based on seminar, workshop and lecture materials presented at national and international conferences, and follows an invitation to cover this topic as part of a one‐day conference on mental health issues in autism spectrum disorders (Staufenberg, 2005; 2007). The paper will seek to a) outline a review of the current evidence base and clinical approaches to the appraisal of risk behaviour or aggressive conduct in general and forensic psychiatric practice, before b) reviewing the current issues in the clinical risk appraisal in individuals with complex neurodevelopmental syndromes of the high functioning autism spectrum, and in particular Asperger's syndrome.References based on clinical and structured instrument‐based risk appraisal will also introduce the pertinence of assessing personality traits in individuals with Asperger's syndrome, with specific reference to forensic neuropsychiatry‐based expertise and case vignettes. A discussion of potential research directions and collaborations will conclude this introductory guide to the emerging field of forensic developmental neuropsychiatry.

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Santhana Gunasekaran and Eddie Chaplin

This paper seeks to offer a general review of offending and autism spectrum disorders from both the authors' perception of the media portrayal and the current evidence…

996

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to offer a general review of offending and autism spectrum disorders from both the authors' perception of the media portrayal and the current evidence based research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors undertook a review of the current literature relating to autism spectrum disorders and offending and commented on current media reporting to try and offer a balance.

Findings

Recent evidence suggests that there is unlikely to be an increased prevalence compared to the general population, but the presence of co‐morbidities may increase the risk of violence.

Originality/value

The paper offers a succinct overview of the current evidence base relating to autism spectrum disorders and offending.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Alex Ward and Ailsa Russell

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disorders that are characterised by abnormalities in reciprocal social interaction and communication and…

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disorders that are characterised by abnormalities in reciprocal social interaction and communication and stereotyped behaviours and repetitive interests (ICD‐10: World Health Organization, 1992). Although many people with ASD function without support in the community, outcome studies suggest that rates of employment and independent living are poor. Services often need to provide support in the areas of housing, social, occupational, leisure and emotional function. Additionally, ASDs can be associated with high rates of co‐morbid mental health difficulties including depression, anxiety and obsessive‐compulsive disorders. This paper aims to describe the current situation regarding clinical services and what is required from these services to address co‐morbid mental health needs in adults with an ASD.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Jacqueline H. Stephenson

Globally, jurisdictions have made several attempts to eliminate and minimize discrimination in employment. These include moral suasion, social justice arguments, business…

Abstract

Globally, jurisdictions have made several attempts to eliminate and minimize discrimination in employment. These include moral suasion, social justice arguments, business case arguments, and legislative enactments. Whilst the former has had limited success, the passage of legislation has proved instrumental, not only in containing the perpetration of discrimination based on protected grounds but also in increasing awareness of the disadvantages which result from the disparate treatment meted out to persons as a result of their immutable characteristics. Disabilities are one such grounds. Where legislation exists, it typically prohibits disparate treatment in relation to persons with disabilities in the areas of employment, education, and the provision of goods and services. This chapter analyses a sample of discrimination cases, with claimants who have alleged discrimination based on their diagnosis of autism or a related disorder within the autism spectrum. These cases are within the United Kingdom and have been decided by Employment Tribunals in England. The cases and decisions are held at the office of the Employment Tribunal Service in Suffolk and are accessible via their online repository. The sample of Tribunal cases presented here relate to various employment practices within British workplaces.

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Lorraine Higham, Imran Piracha and Juli Crocombe

People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulties in their social communication and interaction. The internet is a twenty-first century…

327

Abstract

Purpose

People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulties in their social communication and interaction. The internet is a twenty-first century phenomenon that provides such individuals with a world in which they can exist without the awkwardness of face-to-face contact. The purpose of this paper is to start to illustrate the high risks that can occur when the internet is used as the main forum for interaction in individuals who are socially impaired.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a brief summary of literature in relation to ASD and risk of offending behaviour followed by a case study of a young man with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome who was convicted of conspiracy to murder.

Findings

This paper concludes that possible deficits in central coherence, theory of mind and social skills, combined with extensive periods of time spent alone on the internet forums and a late diagnosis of ASD, may place individuals at risk of committing a serious offence.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the difficulties that people with Autism may have in separating fantasy from reality and the high level of risk that can occur as a result.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Ellena Wood and Neel Halder

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on gender identity disorder (GID) and associated gender disorders in people with learning disabilities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on gender identity disorder (GID) and associated gender disorders in people with learning disabilities and autism, specifically focusing on aetiology, treatment and management.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviewed all the published papers about individuals with both a learning disability and/or autistic spectrum disorder and a gender disorder. Papers from 1980 onwards were included as this was the year of the introduction of GID to the ICD-10. Gender disorders were taken to include the following: GID, transsexualism, cross-dressing, transvestitism or a gender-related sexual disorder.

Findings

In total, 16 papers described 43 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria. There was a dearth of guidance on appropriate treatment or management.

Research limitations/implications

Only English language papers were searched. This review points towards more research needed in this area.

Originality/value

In collating relevant papers the review begins the search for evidence regarding aetiology, treatment and management of gender disorders in an area where evidence-based guidelines are needed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

David Murphy and Clare Allely

The purpose of this paper is to review available literature targeting the assessment and management of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) admitted to high…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review available literature targeting the assessment and management of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) admitted to high secure psychiatric care (HSPC). Key areas of examination include the prevalence of ASD in HSPC, how individuals with an ASD differ from other patient groups in clinical and cognitive characteristics, the views of staff regarding patients with an ASD, an exploration of the experiences and quality of life of patients with an ASD, as well as treatment and interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the published literature.

Findings

Although individuals with an ASD comprise a relatively small proportion of the total HSPC cohort, they appear to be over represented relative to the general population prevalence. Several research projects suggest that individuals with an ASD present with difficulties and needs different to other patient groups, as well as being viewed by staff as potentially vulnerable and requiring a different care approach. Individuals with an ASD report both positive and negative aspects to life in HSPC.

Practical implications

Suggestions are made with regard to how individuals with an ASD might be better managed in HSPC. Following the spirit of various pieces of government legislation such as the Autism Act (2009) and the Equalities Act (2010) the role of a specialist ASD HSPC service is proposed.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of the research to date exploring the assessment and management of individuals with an ASD detained in HSPC. It outlines key research findings, highlights limitations with it and provides a personal perspective on future research and clinical targets.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Holly Edwards and Lorraine Higham

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the formulation and psychological treatment of a complex case whereby a combination of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and…

436

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the formulation and psychological treatment of a complex case whereby a combination of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has resulted in violent and aggressive behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a brief summary of literature in relation to ASD, OCD and risk-offending behaviour followed by a case study of a man (referred to as “John”) with a diagnosis of ASD and OCD who has an extensive history of institutional violence and aggressive behaviour.

Findings

This paper highlights the complexity of a case that may support research suggesting that impaired theory of mind, poor emotional regulation and problems with moral reasoning increase the risk of an individual with ASD engaging in violence, in addition to a comorbidity of ASD and OCD resulting in a more severe and treatment-resistant form of OCD.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the challenges faced when working with a patient with Asperger’s syndrome and OCD with entrenched beliefs that lead to the use of violence as a compulsion to temporarily overcome unpleasant thoughts related to low self-esteem.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

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