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Article

Jae-Pil Ha, Mary A Hums and Chris T Greenwell

This study examines the effect of four acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalisation) on identification with andconsumption of…

Abstract

This study examines the effect of four acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalisation) on identification with and consumption of American football for the Asian population in the United States. Using Berry's (1990, 1997) bi-dimensional model of acculturation as a theoretical framework, significant differences (based on the four acculturation strategies) between football identification and consumption were found. In addition, this study examines the relationships between acculturation, ethnic identity, identification with, and consumption of, the sport among the Asian population. The results indicate that acculturation plays a significant role in explaining participants' identification with, and consumption of, the sport, whereas ethnic identity does not.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Kyu-soo Chung, Christopher Brown and Jennifer Willett

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that motivate Korean baseball fans to support Korean Major League Baseball (MLB) players and to identify the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that motivate Korean baseball fans to support Korean Major League Baseball (MLB) players and to identify the effects of the motivations on identification and behavioral loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three Korean universities. A model was designed to see which three motivations (commitment to Korean baseball, interests in MLB and ethnic identity) affect loyalty behaviors to support Korean MLB players. In the model, the mediating effect of player identification is set to the relation between the three motivations and behavioral loyalty. The moderating effect of team identification is also set to the relation between player identification and behavioral loyalty. Collected data (n=294) were first analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis to ascertain the factor structure of the study model. Then, the study performed a structural equation modeling which finds the magnitude and significance of each causal path among designed factors.

Findings

All the effects were found to be significantly positive except team identification whose moderating effect was not significant. Interests in MLB had the greatest impact on the fan’s player identification followed by commitment to the Korean baseball league and their ethnic identity. It was also found that the influence of player identification was positive on behavioral loyalty.

Originality/value

This work can help MLB expand their fan base internationally, especially in Asian countries.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article

Jae-Pil Ha, Mary Hums and T. Christopher Greenwell

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management literature compared to African-Americans and Hispanics. In addition, sport management scholars have paid limited attention to two important cultural factors: ethnic identity and acculturation. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempted to examine a comprehensive sport consumption model for Asians by testing theoretical relationships between these two cultural factors (ethnic identity and acculturation), fan identification, and sport consumption behavior.

Findings

The structural equation modeling results indicated that ethnic identity indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a native country, e.g. ethnic player popular sports in a native country through identification with the sport products. In contrast acculturation indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a host country, e.g. popular sports in a host country.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide implications on how sport marketers should effectively design sport products based on the Asians’ levels of acculturation and ethnic identity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Seungmo Kim, Damon P. S. Andrew and T. Christopher Greenwell

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were…

Abstract

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were noted in sport interest, vicarious achievement, aesthetics, national pride and violence. Backward regression analyses indicated that sport interest, fighter interest and drama predicted media consumption at the American event, while sport interest, drama and adoration were significant predictors at the Korean event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Yi Zhang, Minkil Kim, Jerred Junqi Wang and Brenda Pitts

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club…

Abstract

Purpose

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club members in the USA, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the opportunities and marketing efforts needed for Asian sports to survive and thrive in North America, in which consumer demand factors assessing core program features of table tennis clubs were found to be very influential of cognitive, affective, and behavioral consumptions of table tennis club members.

Design/methodology/approach

Through conducting a review of literature, observations of club operations, and interviews of club administrators and club members representing various table tennis clubs, a preliminary questionnaire was formulated for this study. The initial questionnaire was submitted to a panel of five experts, for a test of content validity. By incorporating their suggestions, editing was made to improve a number of the items in the questionnaire. Data collection took place in two national table tennis tournaments, two local tournaments, and six table tennis clubs. Procedures in SPSS 19.0 (SPSS, 2009) and Mplus 5.21 were carried out for data analyses.

Findings

The findings of this study are that market demand factors would be significantly related to consumer perceived benefits and perceived value, and in turn related to consumer satisfaction of table tennis club membership. The market demand factors had a positive impact on perceived value and benefits confirmed the theoretical framework and previous research findings, which also made a practical sense that a table tennis club needs to offer product features and meet expectations of its current and potential members in order to enhance program value and benefits perceived by its members.

Originality/value

The past two decades have marked the speediest rise of a globalized sport production and consumption trend. In an era of globalized sport marketplace, sports have become a business commodity to meet the needs of commerce. For an Asian sport to penetrate into the North American marketplace as table tennis has done, it would be wise to develop regional network, strategies, product, and promotions. It is expected that table tennis as a popular Asian sport will continue being spread to other parts of the world; thus, the findings of this study have potential relevance to promoting table tennis globally.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article

Sam Kaplan and Su Langdon

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of…

Abstract

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of the fastest growing and largest in the world. In order to sell effectively in this market, it is vital to gain an understanding of the potential fan base. To explore national differences in fandom, a survey was completed by sports fans in both China and the US to assess which sports participants followed and which media they used, to identify fan motives and their feelings about expansion. This study determined that there are clear differences between Chinese and Americans. While many of the Chinese were fans of American sports, they tended to follow individual athletes rather than teams and had relatively low fan identity but high levels of fan motivation. Motives also varied by country, with aesthetics and affiliation the primary motives among the Chinese sample. These distinctions can be utilised to create marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article

Do Young Pyun, Hyungil H Kwon and Chul-Won Lee

This study assessed the mediation effect of perceived brand quality and the moderation effect of consumer ethnocentric tendency in the proposed consumption model of a…

Abstract

This study assessed the mediation effect of perceived brand quality and the moderation effect of consumer ethnocentric tendency in the proposed consumption model of a global sports brand. The English Premier League was selected as a global sports brand and four hypotheses were established to explain how consumers' perceived brand globalness affected their watching intention. Data were collected from 302 collegians in Republic of Korea. Results showed that perceived brand quality partially mediated the relationship between perceived brand globalness and watching intention, and ethnocentrism played a moderating role. The findings contribute to our understanding of consumption activities of global sport brands.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Katherine Taken Smith and Austin Pinkerton

The purpose of this paper is to examine the apartment preferences of American and Asian college students, the sources of information they use when searching for an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the apartment preferences of American and Asian college students, the sources of information they use when searching for an apartment and the media that influence their buying decision. This study examines determinant criteria in conjunction with the theory of consumption values and utilitarian versus hedonic attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from multiple apartment complexes in a metropolitan area of approximately 250,000 people with over 70,000 college students. All residents of the apartment complexes were asked to answer an online questionnaire. From those questionnaires, a total of 865 qualified to be in the sample for this research study. Qualification depended on the respondent being a college student and of either American or Asian nationality.

Findings

The apartment attributes that are found to be determinant criteria for college students are categorized according to whether they provide utilitarian or hedonic value. These two values relate to the functional and emotional values within the theory of consumption values. The majority of the apartment attributes identified as determinant criteria provide utilitarian value. Specific apartment attributes are described in the paper. The main apartment attributes for which Asian students differ from Americans center on the Asians’ desire for security and accessibility to where they want to go.

Practical implications

With a rising number of people renting instead of buying a home, apartment complexes continue to multiply. The majority of renters are single persons, thus, the majority of apartments should be designed to appeal to the preferences of singles. College students, both native and international, are part of this coveted consumer market. Hence, developers and marketers would be wise to consider the housing preferences of college students.

Originality/value

This paper contributes original information in two areas pertaining to the development and marketing of apartments: the preferences of American college students and the preferences of Asian college students.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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