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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Arvind Chopra and Dixit Garg

The purpose of this paper is to find out the behavior patterns of different quality cost categories to enable us to take the right decisions in allocating resources for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the behavior patterns of different quality cost categories to enable us to take the right decisions in allocating resources for reducing quality costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Costs of quality, existing in a small‐scale industry in India, in the financial year 2006‐2007, were found out. At the start of the financial year 2007‐2008 a quality cost program was implemented in that organization and more resources were allocated for prevention and appraisal cost activities. Subsequently, the costs of quality related to the financial year 2007‐2008 and 2008‐2009 were found out. Based on the quality cost data of three years, co‐relation co‐efficient between the different quality cost categories were calculated.

Findings

The co‐relation co‐efficient between different quality cost categories suggest that by increasing the efforts towards prevention and appraisal activities, costs of non conformance decrease. Furthermore, there exists positive co‐relation within costs of conformance and between costs of non conformance.

Orginality/value

In the competitive modern world, small scale organizations have limited resources. They do not have funds to hire consultants. So, the behaviour patterns of quality cost categories help these organizations to allocate precious resources more effectively and result in the reduction of quality costs thereby improving profitability.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Arvind Chopra and Dixit Garg

The purpose of this paper is to develop two models in the field of cost of quality. One model would be for estimating/calculating cost of quality and the second model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop two models in the field of cost of quality. One model would be for estimating/calculating cost of quality and the second model would be for implementing cost of quality system in an industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Although most industries are aware of the benefits of cost of quality, only a few of them are using it in their organization because they do not know how to calculate and implement same. Hence, to help those industries, simple models are proposed for calculating cost of quality and for implementing cost of quality system.

Findings

Cost of quality models are developed and later on they are validated through a case study. It is observed that by implementing same, the cost of quality reduced significantly in the chosen industry.

Originality/value

Average industries do not have resources to hire the services of consultants to implement cost of quality systems in their industries, therefore the simple models proposed in the paper will be of great value to them.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Arvind Chopra and Bikram Jit Singh

Nowadays companies in the world are selling products by keeping quality as a central value for the customer. Quality-related costs arise from a series of activities…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays companies in the world are selling products by keeping quality as a central value for the customer. Quality-related costs arise from a series of activities performed in order to maintain the quality of product or service. Like other activities of business, quality costs can be programmed, budgeted, measured and analysed to attain the objective of better quality at lower cost. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a decisive methodology to optimize total quality cost (TQC), comprehensively.

Design/methodology/approach

The TQC borne by any small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) is the authentic base, which decides budget and other financial policies for running its ongoing quality programmes. To minimize TQC, one has to make sufficient cut backs in the total failure cost (TFC). Through regression analysis, TFC has been statistically modelled with primary quality costs (like preventive costs (PC) and appraisal costs (AC)). Subsequent graphical analysis has been delineated to elaborate relevant behaviour of different quality costs. At last, potency of suggested methodology has been strategically verified by executing a successful case study in an Indian Auto SME. The requisite optimization has been achieved by using Minitab Statistical Software and its practical validation is checked by conducting a two-sample t-test, exclusively.

Findings

It has been found that TFC has a direct positive correlation with TQC and it increases with time. Further, TFC is inversely proportional with PC and AC. PC and AC act as independent costs, while TFC is a dependent or secondary quality cost. If the authors strategically allocate PC and AC in advance by using statistical advanced tools, then internal failure costs and external failure costs will diminish amply.

Research limitations/implications

It inspires practitioner to harvest profits by inculcating quality cost optimization through lodged statistical behavioural investigation. Proposed approach is verified after performing an empirical study only on an automobile manufacturing SME. Further research is indeed required to testify the given methodology for more complex process configurations.

Practical implications

Data related to quality costs is well available with practitioners but generally lying ignored. The case findings will motivate quality practitioners to use the proposed step by step approach for sustainable reduction in overall quality cost.

Originality/value

SMEs find it difficult to lower their TQC due to severe scarcity of resources and funds. Moreover literature provides mainly the theoretical or qualitative cases which remain ineffective to propel SMEs towards the real world savings. But this manuscript will act as a unique road-map to de-code the behaviour of different quality costs quantitatively without ignoring the existing constraints of SMEs, especially in the developing nations.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Abstract

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Amit Chopra, Anish Sachdeva and Arvind Bhardwaj

The industry is relying on the preventive maintenance techniques that can minimize failures and provide industrial plants with effective equipment, but in many companies…

Abstract

Purpose

The industry is relying on the preventive maintenance techniques that can minimize failures and provide industrial plants with effective equipment, but in many companies the maintenance tasks are performed very frequently and not as per plan and do not take into consideration the conditions of the plant and equipments. The failure of each and every component needs to be studied in order to choose the best maintenance strategy. This paper presents a fuzzy VIKOR (Multicriteria Optimization and Compromise Solution) technique which is used in developing a comprehensive approach for maintenance strategy selection in the Deinking plant of the paper industry to choose the appropriate maintenance strategy thereby reducing the unnecessary cost incurred on the maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the Fuzzy VIKOR based methodology was applied for determining the maintenance criticality index of the deinking plant of the paper industry. The effect of failure of components were evaluated by three maintenance experts on five performance criteria that is chance of failure, chance of non-detection, downtime length, severity, spare part criticality. The components were ranked according to the maintenance criticality index and thereby implementing the appropriate maintenance strategy.

Findings

The Fuzzy VIKOR technique was applied to calculate the ranking of various components of paper industry based on the views and judgment of three maintenance experts. The proposed technique suggested the appropriate maintenance strategy for various components taking into consideration the maintenance criticality index of the components.

Originality/value

The proposed technique will help the maintenance managers to solve a discrete problem with non-commensurable and conflicting criteria. The study will help the industries to reduce the unnecessary maintenance tasks and thereby reduce the maintenance cost. This will help the maintenance practitioners in choosing the best and most effective strategy for the organization with regard to the market and company situation especially in the changing business requirement of Industry 4.0.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Raghav Upadhyai, Neha Upadhyai, Arvind Kumar Jain, Gaurav Chopra, Hiranmoy Roy and Vimal Pant

This study integrates the providers' perspective as well as the patient's perspective in developing and validating a scale to measure hospital service quality in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study integrates the providers' perspective as well as the patient's perspective in developing and validating a scale to measure hospital service quality in multispecialty hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory sequential mixed-method approach was used in this study. The strategies used included a thematic literature review, semi-structured interviews, modified Delphi and confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The reliability coefficient of 41 item scale was 0.963 with each attribute, that is, pivotal, core and peripheral, having a Cronbach's alpha of 0.907, 0.91 and 0.891, with scale content validity (S-CVI Ave) of 0.9151. The composite reliability scores of all constructs were greater than 0.7, with an Average Variance Explained (AVE) of all items greater than 0.5.

Originality/value

The instrument can be used to measure the difference between what service providers believe customers expect and customers’ actual needs and expectations. The scale can be used to measure the difference between what is delivered (as perceived by the provider) and what customers perceive they have received (because they are unable to accurately evaluate service quality). The dyadic approach of administering this questionnaire in measuring hospital service quality will lead to the identification of a knowledge gap and a perception gap in delivering hospital service quality.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Paromita Goswami and Mridula S. Mishra

This article seeks to understand whether Indian consumers are likely to move from traditional kirana stores to large organized retailers while shopping for groceries.

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to understand whether Indian consumers are likely to move from traditional kirana stores to large organized retailers while shopping for groceries.

Design/methodology/approach

Two hypotheses were proposed: H1: customer patronage differs for different grocery store attributes and H2: customer perceptions of grocery store attributes differ for kirana stores and organized retailers. The study was carried out across four Indian cities‐ two major and two smaller cities with around 100 respondents from each city. Stratified systematic sampling design with a sample size of 409 was used for the study. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data collected with the help of a structured questionnaire.

Findings

Customer patronage to grocery stores was found to be positively related to location, helpful, trustworthy salespeople, home shopping, cleanliness, offers, quality and negatively related to travel convenience. Kiranas do well on location but poorly on cleanliness, offers, quality, and helpful trustworthy salespeople. The converse is true for organized retailers.

Research limitations/implications

Kiranas have major disadvantages on all customer perception scores except location. These scores being less important determinants of patronage compared with location, in the short run kiranas may not be ousted out of customers’ favour. However, in the long run if they do not work on these other factors, they would face oblivion.

Practical implications

Kiranas need to upgrade their facilities to be able to compete with the organized retailers, who are expected to improve their location scores rapidly in the near future.

Originality/value

The paper predicts whether the foray of large organized grocery retailing would close down millions of kirana shops and result in loss of livelihood, suggesting measures to counter the onslaught.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 5 June 2014

Arvind Sahay and Nidhi Mathen

In 2010, Hero Honda (HH), the largest global two-wheeler manufacturing company (based on unit sales), terminated its 26 year old JV with Honda, effective 2014. In August…

Abstract

In 2010, Hero Honda (HH), the largest global two-wheeler manufacturing company (based on unit sales), terminated its 26 year old JV with Honda, effective 2014. In August 2011, HH, rebranded itself as “Hero”, with a nationwide campaign across media; over three months, the campaign was rolled out on 30 TV channels, leading websites, 200 radio stations, and 4, 000 cinema halls. Signages were changed in 4, 500 touchpoints over a weekend. The case documents the market and brand position of HH and its principal competitors, Bajaj and Honda in India, the rationale for ending the JV, the rebranding requirements, and the actions taken. Pedagogically, we evaluate the rebranding effort to sustain, create, and build consumer memories and emotions.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Berman Kayis and Putu Dana Karningsih

Risk identification is the first and crucial step in supply chain risk management process. Due to the nature and complexity of supply chain networks of manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk identification is the first and crucial step in supply chain risk management process. Due to the nature and complexity of supply chain networks of manufacturing organizations, risk identification nowadays has become more challenging. The purpose of this paper to present the development of a tool, called Supply Chain Risk Identification System (SCRIS), for assisting decision makers in identifying existing risks, and the interrelationship of risks in supply chain (SC) network, by considering different process strategies, namely make to stock (MTS), make to order (MTO) and engineering to order (ETO).

Design/methodology/approach

SCRIS is developed using a knowledge‐based system (KBS) approach. The knowledge is represented in ruled based form and written using CLIPS expert system language program. To ensure its feasibility, SCRIS is validated using real case studies in several manufacturing industries.

Findings

Feedback gathered from organizations involved in validations processes imply the benefit of using SCRIS as a decision support tool in identifying SC risks. SCRIS also has additional positive role in supply chain risk management (SCRM) by promoting communication and collaboration between SC partners.

Originality/value

SCRIS provides an extensive tool using KBS approach which covers hundreds of SC risk sub‐factors, risk factors, and risk events, as well as mapping the interactions and considering different process strategies which have not been developed to date. A novel SC risks taxonomy is also proposed which encompasses broader issues in the SC network.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Samir K. Srivastava

The purpose of this paper is to investigate e‐reverse auctions (eRA) implementation experiences across a diverse group of firms and sectors in the Indian context, to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate e‐reverse auctions (eRA) implementation experiences across a diverse group of firms and sectors in the Indian context, to derive useful insights for theory and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a qualitative multiple case study following direct observation of object reality. The data analysed include written documentation, archival records, physical artifacts and unstructured interviews with key eRA personnel.

Findings

eRA work best in a competitive, high capacity marketplace and are the dominant strategy when the focus is on low search cost per supplier, when the percent reduction over time in the price offered by the current supplier is low and when the product is standardized. The optimum number of bidders is five to ten. Most of the findings are in line with literature but some of them differ too. These will add to academic discourse.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size and case method approach limits the ability to generalize the findings. The firms were selected as a convenience sample and so may not be truly cross‐sectional. Only analytical generalisation is claimed rather than any statistical generalisation.

Practical implications

eRA improve effectiveness of the sourcing process and facilitate access to new suppliers. They also lead to standardization of sourcing procedures, reduced order cycle, reduced prices and generally higher service levels. This paper will help firms in India and other countries to develop policies, strategies and procedures while implementing eRA.

Originality/value

The paper is perhaps the first on eRA practices in India. The author describes the practices in detail and based on this develops a framework for eRA process and provides detailed and concise guidelines for managers.

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