Caste is the basic structural feature of Hindu society; all social scientists are agreed on this. Since Hinduism is generally recognised to be as much a social system as a religion, its social framework embodying caste rituals has governed the lives of the majority of Indians for hundreds of years. Having deep roots in tradition and enjoying sanction in all religious literature belonging to the pre‐British era, caste has been the dominant principle of social organisation since ancient times. In fact, barring the recent past, Hinduism has always been identified in the minds of most Indians with caste observances. Writes R.C. Zaehner: “…until a century or so ago the acceptance of the caste system was considered by the orthodox to be the sole effective criterion of whether one was or was not a Hindu. In matters of belief it mattered not at all whether one believed in one god or many, or not at all, nor did it much matter on how one interpreted ‘liberation’ or whether one rejected it outright so long as one fulfilled the duties prescribed for one's caste.”
It is a common observation that new technology introduced into Third World countries frequently fails to yield the expected results. Despite the availability of adequate…
It is a common observation that new technology introduced into Third World countries frequently fails to yield the expected results. Despite the availability of adequate finance, willing donor and recipient organisations and a congenial political climate, the imported equipment is often under‐utilised, used less productively and, at the end of its useful life, the users may look forward to a fresh induction, indicating thereby that the technology provided has not been absorbed.
The essence of Japanese culture is said to lie in the group rather than in the individual. According to the viewpoint favoured in most writings on Japanese society and culture, the Japanese are a group‐oriented people; they like to work in groups and have always worked in association with one another, and social pressures on the individual to conform happen to be irresistible. The nail that sticks out, as the popular saying goes, gets hammered down.