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1 – 10 of 349
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Muhammad Usman Arshad, Fahad Najeeb Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq, Muhammad Nadir Shabbir and Syed Mehmood Raza Shah

This study aims to explore the firm's specific, opacity and economy-specific variables to explain the variation in South Asian market returns and indicate that how the difference…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the firm's specific, opacity and economy-specific variables to explain the variation in South Asian market returns and indicate that how the difference in adoption of accounting standards refers to the effect of the movement in stock returns.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the scope of the study, factor analysis, fixed effect, Driscoll and Kraay standard errors (DKSE) and Panel Corrected standard error (PCSE) models have been inducted to determine the influence of firm-specific, opacity and economy-specific variables on stock returns. The sample of study comprises 1,885 firms from five countries located in the South Asia region with the period 2005–2018. To ensure the reliability of data, firm-specific data have been collected from DataStream International, while an international country risk guide was used to compile the data for economy-specific variables.

Findings

This study concluded that firm-specific variables showed a consistent and significant association with stock return except for beta, accrual and momentum while earning aggressiveness was the only factor in opacity measure to capture the variation in stock return. The implementation of international accounting standards seemed to be significant and proves to be helpful to enhance the quality of accounting information.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study comprised the estimation error by avoiding the firm's observations with negative equity in case of earning opacity and majority (more than 50%) of the observation belongs to a single market as India out of final sample which leads to having biasedness in findings.

Practical implications

This study helps the investors to consider the firms with smaller market capitalization and lower book to market ratio and avoid the momentum strategy under firm specific factors. Moreover, earning aggressiveness under opacity domain capture the variation in stock return and must be considered while investing funds.

Originality/value

The influence of adoption of international accounting standards along with firm and economy specific variable in South Asian Equity Markets return was the major contribution. Moreover, the inclusion of DKSE and PCSE models to examine the relevance of the financial and economic informational environment was also considered as a part of major contribution of this study.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2054-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Muhammad Arshad, Mariam Farooq, Muhammad Atif and Omer Farooq

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on entrepreneurial intentions of male and female individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from students graduating from Pakistan’s largest university. A structural equation modeling technique was used for model testing.

Findings

Intrinsic factors such as intrinsic interest and community feeling aspiration and extrinsic factors such as perceived relative income and occupational prestige positively affect attitudes and, in turn, stimulate entrepreneurial intentions. Further, as intrinsic interest and perceived relative income scored higher among men, gender moderates those effects. Conversely, the entrepreneurial attitudes of women were primarily driven by community feeling aspiration. Notably, the positive effect of occupational prestige did not vary among men and women.

Originality/value

This paper explores the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the entrepreneurial intentions of men and women. The integration of motivational theory with gender provides insights into the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions in South Asia.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2023

Darwina Arshad, Ian R. Hodgkinson, Paul Hughes, Munirah Khamarudin, Muhammad Zulqarnain Arshad and Adibah Bari

The direct selling model adopted in the beauty and cosmetics industry puts female consumer entrepreneurs at the heart of the business model. A neglected phenomenon in female…

Abstract

Purpose

The direct selling model adopted in the beauty and cosmetics industry puts female consumer entrepreneurs at the heart of the business model. A neglected phenomenon in female entrepreneurship, this study aims to focus on female sales agents’ capabilities that are linked to sales performance and examine which capabilities might be shaped and enhanced through coaching and training in an emerging economy context.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were generated from a sample of 249 female sales agents who agreed to participate in a coaching and training programme run by a focal firm. Data were collected in two phases to investigate the capabilities linked to sales performance pre-intervention and the impact of coaching and training on the relationships between the capabilities and sales performance post-intervention. The time-lag data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

For female sales agents, self-efficacy and sales experience have a significant positive effect on adaptive sales performance both before and after the coaching and training intervention. In contrast, intellectual capital and self-motivation had a non-significant relationship with sales performance before the intervention. However, after the intervention, the relationship between these variables became positive and significant.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates the effects of pre- and post-coaching and training on female consumer entrepreneurs’ capabilities and the links to sales performance. These findings add critical empirical knowledge on how female consumer entrepreneurship may be developed and the role of entrepreneurship for female empowerment in the Asian context. Collectively, the findings bring to the fore the female sphere in consumer entrepreneurship research in emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Yasir Mehmood, Kong Rong, Muhammad Khalid Bashir and Muhammad Arshad

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effect of partial quantity rationing of credit on the technical efficiency of dairy farmers in the Punjab province of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effect of partial quantity rationing of credit on the technical efficiency of dairy farmers in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior to the field survey, the authors constructed a theoretical model for clear identification of partial quantity rationed dairy farmers. Data from 154 dairy farmers were collected that represented three districts of the province. The collected data were analyzed in two stages: first, the efficiency level of dairy farmers was estimated using a stochastic frontier approach; second, the authors employed an inefficiency-effects model to estimate the effect of partial quantity rationing of credit on technical efficiency.

Findings

The results revealed that education level of the household head, cross-breed and imported cattle, and electric chaff cutter, all had significant positive impacts on technical efficiency, followed by diversified sources of income. Conversely, the analysis of our key variables, interest rate on principal amount and partial quantity rationing of credit had significant negative effects on the technical efficiency of dairy farmers in selected districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan.

Originality/value

The study will be an important contribution to the existing credit constraints and technical efficiency literature and will particularly help the rural financial institutions in terms of approving the loan amount according to the actual requirements of the borrowers. The study’s findings and subsequent recommendations will be useful for policy makers in achieving the actual production level, bringing down the poverty levels and ensuring food security in the country.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq and Mariam Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame, physical…

1520

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame, physical appearance) goals affect individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). The study uses goal contents theory to propose that intrinsic and extrinsic goals positively influence individuals’ EIs. The authors further argue that the collectivism moderates the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on individuals EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was designed to collect data from business graduates at a university in Pakistan. The measurement model and the hypothesized model were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in MPlus 7.0.

Findings

The results suggest that all four intrinsic goals and three extrinsic goals positively affect individuals’ EIs. However, financial success and fame appear to be the most prominent determinants of EIs. Similarly, personal growth and contribution to community are strong predictors of individuals’ EIs. Conversely, health, physical appearance and affiliation motives were found to have a weaker effect on individuals’ EIs. Moreover, the results show that collectivist orientation negatively moderates the effect of intrinsic goals on individuals’ EIs, but positively moderates the effect of extrinsic goals. These results suggest that the EIs of individuals with high collectivist orientation are mainly induced by extrinsic goals, whereas intrinsic factors play a greater role in stimulating the EIs of individuals with low collectivism.

Originality/value

Extant research has paid little attention to intrinsic and extrinsic goals as determinants of individuals’ EIs. Thus, this study explores how and when intrinsic and extrinsic goals develop individuals’ EIs. This study is the first of its kind to highlight the importance of individuals’ cultural orientation (collectivism) to determine the alternative role of intrinsic and extrinsic goals in developing individuals’ EIs. In addition, this study was conducted in a different cultural setting (i.e. South Asia), which provides an opportunity to expand the boundary conditions of the phenomenon by offering an alternative perspective on this issue.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2022

Muhammad Arshad, Mir Dost and Neelam Qasim

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of organizational identification on employee work engagement (EWE) and to what extent this relationship strengthens/weakens…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of organizational identification on employee work engagement (EWE) and to what extent this relationship strengthens/weakens when moderated by gender and leader social dominance orientation (SDO).

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypothesized relationships, the authors collected data from supervisors (n = 101) and their subordinates (n = 478) working in medium and large organizations in the service industry. To test the hypothesized model, the authors used structural equation modeling in MPlus.

Findings

The data revealed that organizational identification is positively associated with EWE. Interestingly, the effects were stronger on female EWE than male EWE. Furthermore, the findings of this study displayed that leader SDO negatively moderated the relationship between organizational identification and EWE. The results of this study were more potent when the leader SDO was low versus high.

Originality/value

The findings mainly contribute to the social identity theory by examining the moderating role of gender and leader SDO on the link between organizational identification and EWE. This study offers practitioners insights into the importance of gender in EWE and the type of leadership. Conducting this study in a developing economy provided a unique contextual finding, which will be helpful for the practitioners who want to improve the work engagement of female employees.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Sarfraz Zaman, Muhammad Arshad, Naheed Sultana and Sharjeel Saleem

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family business exposure on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). By applying the institutional framework at the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family business exposure on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). By applying the institutional framework at the micro level, this study proposed the mediation of three types of institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 367 university students in Pakistan. The survey design was used for the data collection. The measurement and hypothesized models were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in Mplus 7.0.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that family business exposure positively influenced the institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) which further developed the individuals' EIs. However, family business exposure did not affect the EIs directly that showed the full mediation of institutional forces between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.

Originality/value

This is the first study in its nature which applied institutional theory from the macro level to the micro level within the context of family business. The results revealed the institutional forces as the underpinning mechanism which explains the relationship between family business exposure and EIs.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain, Lu Qian, Muhammad Arshad, Shamsuddin Shahid, Shah Fahad and Javed Akhter

Changes in climate may have both beneficial and harmful effects on crop yields. However, the effects will be more in countries whose economy depends on agriculture. This study…

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Abstract

Purpose

Changes in climate may have both beneficial and harmful effects on crop yields. However, the effects will be more in countries whose economy depends on agriculture. This study aims to measure the economic impacts of climate change on crop farming in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A Ricardian model was used to estimate the relationship between net crop income and climate variables. Historical climate data and farm household level data from all climatic zones of Bangladesh were collected for this purpose. A regression model was then developed of net crop income per hectare against long-term climate, household and farm variables. Marginal impacts of climate change and potential future impacts of projected climate scenarios on net crop incomes were also estimated.

Findings

The results revealed that net crop income in Bangladesh is sensitive to climate, particularly to seasonal temperature. A positive effect of temperature rise on net crop income was observed for the farms located in the areas having sufficient irrigation facilities. Estimated marginal impact suggests that 1 mm/month increase in rainfall and 10°C increase in temperature will lead to about US$4-15 increase in net crop income per hectare in Bangladesh. However, there will be significant seasonal and spatial variations in the impacts. The assessment of future impacts under climate change scenarios projected by Global Circulation Models indicated an increase in net crop income from US$25-84 per hectare in the country.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study indicate the need for development practitioners and policy planners to consider both the beneficial and harmful effects of climate change across different climatic zones while designing and implementing the adaptation policies in the country.

Originality/value

Literature survey of the Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar indicates that this study is the first attempt to measure the economic impacts of climate change on overall crop farming sector in Bangladesh using an econometric model.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 December 2022

Hafiz Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Waheed Akhtar, Muhammad Imran, Irem Batool, Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq and Minhas Akbar

China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a framework of regional connectivity in which employees have to work in a cross-cultural environment. This study has extended the…

Abstract

Purpose

China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a framework of regional connectivity in which employees have to work in a cross-cultural environment. This study has extended the leader-member exchange theory by investigating the mediating role of employee commitment (EC) between the relationship of leader-member exchange (LMX) and employee's work-related behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

PLS-SEM technique was used to test the model by utilizing a multi-wave/two-source data collected from employees and their supervisors (n = 500) working in different energy projects of CPEC.

Findings

According to the results/findings, LMX has a significant positive impact on employee commitment, employee performance (EP) and open-minded discussions, but insignificant impact on innovative work behaviour (IWB). Mediating role of employee commitment was significant between the relationship of LMX with EP and open-minded discussions, but insignificant with the IWB.

Originality/value

The study contributes empirical evidence to understanding the leader-member exchange relationship among Chinese managers and Pakistani workers. It also contributes to the LMX theory literature by investigating the effect of LMX on followers' outcomes (employee performance, IWB, open-minded discussions) through employee commitment.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2023

Neelam Qasim, Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq and Rabeeya Raoof

This study aims to investigate the effect of differentiated empowering leadership on employees’ depression. Using the behavioral theory of depression, this study further explores…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of differentiated empowering leadership on employees’ depression. Using the behavioral theory of depression, this study further explores the simultaneous moderation of gender and employees’ envy on the relationship between such leadership and employees’ depression.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using two surveys conducted with a time lag of one week. In Time 1, data on differentiated empowering leadership and employees’ envy were collected. After a week, data on employees’ depression were collected. Model testing was conducted using data on a sample of 420 employees from 87 departments in 27 service sector organizations in Pakistan. Hypotheses were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in Mplus.

Findings

Results indicate that perceived differentiated empowering leadership positively affects employees’ depression. In addition, this positive effect is further moderated by employees’ envy and gender simultaneously, such that this effect is weakest among the male individuals who feel low envy, whereas, for highly envious females, this effect is strongest.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of differentiated empowering leadership on employees’ depression along with the moderation of employees’ envy and gender. Furthermore, this study provides some policy implications based on its findings to decrease employees’ depression.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

1 – 10 of 349