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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

The main theme of this issue is the current trend in solvents for surface coatings and printing inks manufacture. When the feature was first planned we had assumed that…

Abstract

The main theme of this issue is the current trend in solvents for surface coatings and printing inks manufacture. When the feature was first planned we had assumed that the results of increasing environmental concern, legislation such as the Health & Safety at Work Act, plus the dramatic rise in hydrocarbon costs, would indicate a significant swing away from hydrocarbon solvents and aromatics in particular. Now whilst this position may exist in the USA, Scandinavia and also West Germany to some extent, countries that have seen more rigorous legislation than in the UK, once we started making a few inquiries around the industry we were a little surprised to find that the demand for hydrocarbon solvents, including aromatics, is still constant in the UK. This is in spite of the fact that there is a steady, but still not highly significant, swing towards more use of water‐based and powder coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Yuni Sri Rahayu

The study aimed at developing the bioremediation model of Lapindo mud through multisymbiotic organism.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed at developing the bioremediation model of Lapindo mud through multisymbiotic organism.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted using completely randomized design. The model plants chosen in this research were soybean. The interaction pattern during the treatment was used to develop the bioremediation model based on the parameters.

Findings

The results showed that there was an effect of the type of organism on the parameters, namely: the growth of plant (biomass, height, length of root, and number of leaves), the biomass of root nodules, the percentage of mycorrhizal infection, the content of water, nitrogen, phosphorus, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). There was a pattern of multisymbiotic interaction between each organism and roles of each symbiont in that interaction. Therefore, the plants were capable of surviving in the environment of Sidoarjo Lapindo mud. This pattern can be named as the bioremediation model proposed, which is the analogy of tripartite symbiosis between plants, mycorrhizae, and Rhizobium but also adding plant growth bacteria such as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and hydrocarbon degradation bacteria. The implementation of this model can be used to treat oil-contaminated soil in order to be used as a plant growth medium.

Originality/value

Phytoremediation is a new and promising approach to remove contaminants in the environment but using plants alone for remediation confronts many limitations. Therefore, the application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobia (PGPR) has been extended to remediate contaminated soils in association with plants (Zhuang et al., 2007). The development of the model will use the analogy of tripartite symbiosis between plants, mycorrhizae, and Rhizobium. The developed model will be based on the interaction pattern on each parameters obtained. Bioremediation is chosen because it is considered an effective technique to transform toxic components into less toxic products without disrupting the surrounding environment. Besides, bioremediation is cheaper and environment-friendly because it utilizes microorganisms to clean pollutants from the environment (Nugroho, 2006).

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1980

Ann J. Walton

Solvents by their very nature are volatile substances and therefore eminently suitable for analysis by GC. The separation of low‐molecular‐weight hydrocarbons on a…

Abstract

Solvents by their very nature are volatile substances and therefore eminently suitable for analysis by GC. The separation of low‐molecular‐weight hydrocarbons on a highly‐polar stationary phase, which consisted of mixed bis‐lactams, was reported by Ravey (157). The packing was claimed to be stable up to 80°C, thus permitting some degree of temperature programming to be used, so that the molecular‐weight range of the samples examined in one analysis could be increased. The specific retention volumes and retention indices at 45°C for a total of 49 normal, branched or halogenated hydrocarbons were measured by Zielinski and Martine (211) for a series of seven stationary phases of similar chain length. These consisted of n‐heptadecance, l‐ hexadecylchloride, l‐hevadeceen,l‐hexadecylbromide, l‐hexadecyliodide, di‐n‐octyl ether and di‐n‐octyl thioether and the procedures described were used in the choice and classification of the stationary phases for GC. Separation of the alkenenaphthene fraction of white spirit was carried out by Leont'eva et al. (120) on a column coated with squalane and operated at 100°C. The carrier gas was helium and fifty three separate peaks were identified and quantified using a flameionisation detector (FID). A squalane capillary column was used by Kumar et al. (115) to identify the hydrocarbon components of a petroleum naphtha fraction (boiling range 40 to 150°C). The analysis was performed under isothermal conditions.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 9 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

R.A. El‐Adly, Y.M. Moustafa and A.M.A. Omar

Acid sludge produced from regeneration of used lubricating oil was chemically treated in order to convert it in to a saleable product. Investigates treatment with…

311

Abstract

Acid sludge produced from regeneration of used lubricating oil was chemically treated in order to convert it in to a saleable product. Investigates treatment with different inorganic formulations. Determines and discusses the optimum formulation composition. Characterizes the spectroscopic analysis, thermogravimetric and rheology behaviours, and hydrocarbon type analysis (asphaltene, oil and resin) of the extracted multicomponent resin (MCR‐1). Uses the MCR‐1 for the preparation of gilsonite varnish. The physico‐chemical properties of the latter were determined and compared with those of a standard gilsonite varnish. Concludes that treatment of acid sludge with different salt formulations provides a potentially lowest cost source of gilsonite varnish for news ink and also helps reduce an environmental problem created by re‐refining used oil.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1983

Americus

The paint industry is not immune to the dual problems of an ever‐decreasing supply of oil and natural gas, coupled with what some would call the predatory objectives of…

Abstract

The paint industry is not immune to the dual problems of an ever‐decreasing supply of oil and natural gas, coupled with what some would call the predatory objectives of OPEC. The paint industry has a need for energy, and this need starts with its raw materials. To be sure, there is today a “glut” of energy. And it is predicted that this glut will exist until the end of 1985. But sooner or later the energy short‐age will be felt, and the paint industry will not be immune.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 12 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1961

A Special Correspondent

The plant engineer anxious to protect equipment from corrosion can today choose from a variety of methods, one of which is to use elastomeric lining and coating materials…

Abstract

The plant engineer anxious to protect equipment from corrosion can today choose from a variety of methods, one of which is to use elastomeric lining and coating materials designed to meet a given set of corrosive conditions. What must be known, however, in selecting the right materials and methods are not only the properties of the coatings but also their limitations. In the following, some properties and uses of linings based on elastomers are considered.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 8 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Organophilic Sylodex Bentonites are organically treated forms of the clay mineral montmorillonite. The latter is present in the form of microscopically small platelets…

Abstract

Organophilic Sylodex Bentonites are organically treated forms of the clay mineral montmorillonite. The latter is present in the form of microscopically small platelets. The platelets are characteristic of the crystalline structure of the montmorillonite. The chemical composition is that of an aluminium hydrosilicate in which the silicon, aluminium and oxygen atoms are arranged in 3 layers (see Fig. 1). The outer layers consist of SiO2‐tetrahedra and the inner layers of (AlO4(OH)2) octahedra. An idealized initial structure of the precursor of montmorillonite exhibits the following neutral formula:

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2015

Shu Yi, Lin Xiao, Yong Zhang, Dujuan Duan and Maksim G. Blokhin

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18…

Abstract

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18 bench samples were taken from Huangling Mine 2. The average content of barium (3701 mg/kg) was about 23 times higher than that of common world coals. Terrestrial higher plants were the main coal-forming parent material. Relying on the parameters of OEP, Pr/Ph and so on, there is little correlation between organic geochemical characteristics and barium enrichment. Therefore, organic material has little influence on the process of coal-forming and the enrichment of barium.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Deepa P., Meena Laad, Sangita and Rina Singh

The purpose of this paper is to study the recent work carried out in enhancing the properties of bitumen using nano-additives. Bitumen is a by-product obtained from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the recent work carried out in enhancing the properties of bitumen using nano-additives. Bitumen is a by-product obtained from the refining process of crude oil, therefore making it a diminishing product. It has been used by mankind since ages for various applications like sealants, binders, waterproof coatings and pavement construction material. It is a black viscous substance with adhesive nature.

Design/methodology/approach

Bitumen is used as a binding material because of its ability to become liquid when heated and become solid when cooled and thus used largely in construction of roads because of its unique properties. Low softening point of bitumen leads to melting of bitumen during summer and causes rutting of roads, whereas during winter it leads to cracking as bitumen acts brittle in nature during low temperature. Increasing global demand of bitumen has created gap between demand and supply which is increasing with the passage of time. Further modern life has created very high traffic volume and heavy load which makes it essential to improve performance of bitumen.

Findings

Research studies have reported that the thermal properties of bitumen are enhanced by using thermoplastic polymers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene, polyethylene and ethylene-vinyl acetate, rubber and bio waste etc.

Originality/value

This paper reviews various types of materials which have been used to improve the properties of bitumen and explores the possibility to synthesise bitumen composite materials with nanoadditives with improved structural, mechanical and thermal properties.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1934

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Committee, Reports and Technical Notes of the U.S. National…

Abstract

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Committee, Reports and Technical Notes of the U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and publications of other similar research bodies as issued

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 6 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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