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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Jessica van Wingerden, Daantje Derks and Arnold B. Bakker

The purpose of this paper is to report a study in which central propositions from the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are used to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a study in which central propositions from the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are used to examine the antecedents of performance during practical internships. The central hypothesis of this study was that job resources foster performance through basic need satisfaction and work engagement (sequential mediation).

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical multi-source study among Dutch interns and their supervisors in various occupational sectors. The interns reported their level of resources, basic needs satisfaction and work engagement, whereas supervisors rated interns’ task performance (n=1,188 unique supervisor–intern dyads).

Findings

This study integrates insights of the JD-R theory – by examining the relations between job resources, work engagement and performance – with a central premise of the SDT – which maintains that basic need satisfaction is the fundamental process through which employees’ optimal functioning can be understood. The outcomes of the path analyses revealed that satisfaction of needs indeed accounted for the relationship between job resources and work engagement as supposed in the SDT (Deci and Ryan, 2000). Further, the sequential mediated relation between job resources and performance through basic need satisfaction and work engagement corroborates the JD-R theory (Bakker and Demerouti, 2014).

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, this is the first study that examined the sequential mediation from job resources to performance via basic need satisfaction and work engagement, among a large sample of intern–supervisor dyads, including the objective performance rating of their (internship) supervisors.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Judith Plomp, Maria Tims, Jos Akkermans, Svetlana N. Khapova, Paul G.W. Jansen and Arnold B. Bakker

The purpose of this paper is to bring together job design and career theory in the examination of how proactive employees optimize their well-being (i.e. job satisfaction…

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4471

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring together job design and career theory in the examination of how proactive employees optimize their well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and perceived health) through job crafting and career competencies. This study offers an integrated account of the pathway from proactive personality to well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by a cross-sectional self-report survey study among 574 employees working in various organizations.

Findings

The results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the proposed double mediation model: job crafting and career competencies both mediated the positive relationship between proactive personality and well-being. The findings suggest that proactive employees can enhance their well-being both through proactive job redesign and the development of career-related skills and abilities.

Research limitations/implications

This study precludes causal explanations. Future research should further investigate the role of employee proactivity related to contemporary work topics, including temporary contracts and self-employment.

Practical implications

Managers and HR practitioners can optimize employee well-being by focusing on HR policies related to job redesign, as well as investing in training and development of career competencies.

Originality/value

This paper integrates two research domains by exploring how proactive employees take a proactive stance toward their job as well as their career, and investigates how this proactive approach contributes to their well-being. In addition, the authors demonstrated a link between the development of career competencies and employee health.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Wei Liu, Dimitri van der Linden and Arnold B. Bakker

Using positive psychology theories, the authors build a model to test whether episodic fluctuations in strengths use coincide with changes in flow experiences and further…

Abstract

Purpose

Using positive psychology theories, the authors build a model to test whether episodic fluctuations in strengths use coincide with changes in flow experiences and further predict risk-taking behavior and attentional performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study covering five working days was conducted among 164 Chinese employees; twice a day, they were asked to complete questionnaires regarding their strengths use and flow experiences during the previous hour (N = 938 observations). Immediately afterward, their risk-taking behaviors and attentional performance were tested using computerized tasks.

Findings

Multilevel analyses showed that when employees used their strengths more often in the previous hour, they also reported an increase in flow. Episodic fluctuations in flow were positively associated with risk taking and negatively related to attentional performance.

Practical implications

Employees should be encouraged to use their strengths more at work, as this might increase their flow experiences. At the same time, they should pay attention to the downsides of flow (i.e. less attention after flow) at an episodic level.

Originality/value

The authors add to previous studies by using a more objective approach, namely employing computerized tasks on risk-taking behavior and attention to capture the behavioral outcomes of work-related flow.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Andrea Marcela Reina-Tamayo, Arnold B. Bakker and Daantje Derks

The purpose of this paper is to integrate job demands–resources theory and the episodic process model to examine the relationships between episodic cognitive mechanisms…

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1107

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate job demands–resources theory and the episodic process model to examine the relationships between episodic cognitive mechanisms (i.e. cognitive interference and attentional pull), work engagement and performance. It is hypothesized that an episode characterized by less cognitive interference and more attentional pull (i.e. attraction toward the work activity) is associated with the highest levels of work engagement and job performance. Additionally, it is hypothesized that episodic challenge/hindrance job demands boost/diminish the positive relationship between episodic job resources and work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Using experience sampling methodology, 48 employees used their smartphones to complete surveys three times a day for one week, resulting in 266 observations.

Findings

Results of multilevel analyses suggest that episodic hindrance job demands (but not challenge job demands) moderate the positive relation between job resources and work engagement.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it captures fluctuating cognitive processes (i.e. attentional pull and cognitive interference) that take place during work activities.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Arnold B. Bakker, Mina Westman and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The central aim of this paper is to give an overview of theory and research on the crossover of (work‐related) wellbeing from employees to their partners at home. In…

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Abstract

Purpose

The central aim of this paper is to give an overview of theory and research on the crossover of (work‐related) wellbeing from employees to their partners at home. In addition, it seeks to discuss studies on the crossover of wellbeing from employees to their colleagues in the workplace. It aims to discuss possible moderators of the crossover effect and delineate a research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature review.

Findings

The review of the literature shows that strain may spillover from work to home, and consequently influence, the wellbeing of one's partner. Additionally, the paper discusses recent studies documenting that the enthusiasm for one's work may cross over to the partner as well. Furthermore, research has shown that employees influence one another in the workplace. Several conditions may facilitate such crossover, including the frequency of interactions, empathy, susceptibility to contagion, and similarity. The paper outlines a research agenda, and indicates what the gaps in the literature are.

Originality/value

The literature review reveals which advancements can be made in crossover theory. One way would be to further validate the spillover‐crossover model. This model postulates that job demands lead to work‐family conflict, which, in turn, leads to conflict with the partner (social undermining). Thus, job strain (or work engagement) first spills over from work to home, and then crosses over to the partner. This interaction sequence consequently influences the partner's wellbeing.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Arnold B. Bakker and Simon Albrecht

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Abstract

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Heleen van Mierlo and Arnold B. Bakker

The purpose of this paper is to extend the current knowledge on psychological contagion and crossover by investigating the crossover of task-specific engagement (a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the current knowledge on psychological contagion and crossover by investigating the crossover of task-specific engagement (a positive, fulfilling state of mind) among group members. The paper also examines whether this crossover process is reinforced by strong group cohesion or by higher a priori levels of task engagement of the most engaged group member.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors operationalized crossover as within-group convergence on individual engagement over time. The authors studied this process in 43 newly formed groups performing a dynamic, interactive building task under controlled laboratory conditions, allowing the authors to observe the crossover process from a “zero” point, before any mutual influences had occurred.

Findings

Group member engagement scores indeed converged over time, supporting the proposed crossover effect of engagement, especially when the most engaged group member was highly engaged at the beginning of the group task. Unexpectedly, the explanatory role of group cohesion was not convincingly supported; the crossover of engagement was no stronger in groups with high cohesion.

Practical implications

These findings show that task-specific engagement is indeed transferred among group members, particularly when the most engaged group member is highly engaged.

Originality/value

Previous studies on psychological contagion and crossover were mainly focused on dyadic relationships and specific emotions or impaired well-being. The findings add to this literature by addressing the crossover of engagement – a more complex, beneficial psychological state – among group members and provide new input for developing and sustaining engagement in and of groups.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Anja Van den Broeck, Joris Van Ruysseveldt, Els Vanbelle and Hans De Witte

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset…

Abstract

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset dissatisfaction such as social relations from job aspects that foster job satisfaction such as opportunities for advancement. While Hackman and Oldham (1976) focused on the motivational potential of job characteristics such as task identity and feedback, Karasek (1979) accentuated time pressure as a pivotal job demand. Together these models point out that various job characteristics may influence workers’ functioning.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) in the crossover process. Specifically, it aims to test whether…

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4536

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) in the crossover process. Specifically, it aims to test whether empathy moderates the crossover effect of women's work engagement to their men's work engagement. Additionally, it seeks to investigate the relationship between men's engagement and colleague ratings of job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using a cross‐sectional design with three sources of information: 175 Dutch women and their partners working in different occupational sectors, as well as 175 colleagues of the male participants.

Findings

Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses showed that the crossover of work engagement from women to men was strongest when men were high (vs low) in perspective taking (the spontaneous tendency of a person to adopt the psychological perspective of other people). Empathic concern did not moderate the crossover effect. In addition, men's work engagement was positively related to in‐role and extra‐role performance.

Practical implications

Results suggest that work engagement is not only important for one's own, but also for one's partner's performance. This implies that companies should try to facilitate engagement.

Originality/value

The findings shed light on the crossover process, and indicate under which conditions employees are influenced by their partners and consequently change their work behavior.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Wido G.M. Oerlemans and Arnold B. Bakker

Subjective Well-Being (SWB) refers to how a person evaluates his or her life (Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot, 1991). This appraisal may take the form of cognitions – when a…

Abstract

Subjective Well-Being (SWB) refers to how a person evaluates his or her life (Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot, 1991). This appraisal may take the form of cognitions – when a person makes a conscious evaluative judgment about his or her satisfaction with (working) life; or take the form of affect, when people experience negative or positive emotions in response to everyday life. In this chapter, we concentrate on the latter form of SWB – momentary affective experiences (Russell, 1980, 2003) in everyday working life, which we also refer to as momentary SWB.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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