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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Margaret M. Chrusciel, Scott Wolfe, J. Andrew Hansen, Jeff J Rojek and Robert Kaminski

The purpose of this paper is to assess the perspectives of law enforcement executives and public school principals regarding school resource officers (SROs), armed teachers

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the perspectives of law enforcement executives and public school principals regarding school resource officers (SROs), armed teachers, and armed school administrators in order to inform the policy discussion surrounding school safety issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes data collected from two surveys that were sent to law enforcement executives and public school principals in South Carolina. Respondents were asked about their experience with SROs and their perspectives on these officers’ ability to maintain school safety. Both groups of respondents were also asked about their attitudes regarding arming school employees.

Findings

There is a large amount of support for SROs from both law enforcement executives and principals. However, in general, both groups of respondents do not believe armed administrators or armed teachers to be an effective school safety strategy.

Originality/value

SROs have been the primary strategy adopted by schools to maintain safety, but in the wake of the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, public outcry and political debate has spawned a number of proposed alternatives. Among these alternative security measures has been the idea of arming school teachers and/or administrators. However, there appears to have been little effort to empirically consider the perspectives of those directly impacted by school safety policy decisions. In particular, a gap in the literature remains regarding the perceptions of police executives and school principals concerning school safety policies and how the attitudes of these key actors compare. Thus, the current study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of key school safety stakeholders.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Lacey Nicole Wallace

This study aims to examine parent perceptions of school active shooter preparedness and prevention efforts, as well as parent perceptions of the risk of an active shooter event.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine parent perceptions of school active shooter preparedness and prevention efforts, as well as parent perceptions of the risk of an active shooter event.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained in 2019 through an online survey of 182 Pennsylvania residents who were the parents or step-parents of children enrolled in pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten-12th or college/ university. Respondents were a subset of a state-representative sample of 668 individuals.

Findings

Actions taken by schools were largely unrelated to parent perceptions. Parents who reported that their child’s school had provided information about active shooters to students had better attitudes toward preventive efforts overall. Parents who reported that their child’s school had changed firearms policy perceived a higher level of risk. Parents were also asked to share what they felt their child’s school could do that would help them feel more prepared for an active shooter event. The most common response was for schools to install metal detectors or perform random metal detector checks.

Originality/value

While there is extensive research on the views of students about school safety and security and, to a lesser degree, the views of school administrators and teachers, parents have largely been neglected in school safety research.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

John H. Andreae and Bruce A. MacDonald

Mobile robots with dextrous hands and sophisticated sensory systems will require intelligent, knowledge‐based, expert controllers. A design is developed for a robot…

Abstract

Mobile robots with dextrous hands and sophisticated sensory systems will require intelligent, knowledge‐based, expert controllers. A design is developed for a robot controller which can acquire task knowledge as it interacts in the world with its human users. The design is based on four reasonable assumptions which lead to a theoretical framework for robot learning systems. The framework is called a multiple‐context learning system. It is a production system with multiple templates for forming productions as the system interacts with the world. Elaborations of the framework and experimental tests of the system are discussed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Amy R. May and Victoria McDermott

Purpose: The study explores how educators use mass media to sensemake their experiences in relation to school shootings.Methodology/approach: The present chapter uses…

Abstract

Purpose: The study explores how educators use mass media to sensemake their experiences in relation to school shootings.

Methodology/approach: The present chapter uses content analysis to analyze educator tweets and results from an anonymous online survey.

Findings: Twitter is used by educators in the aftermath of school shootings to sensemake the impact these events have on teaching and learning outcomes. Moreover, educators turn to Twitter to debate larger issues related to gun control and arming teachers. Collectively, educators remain committed to their institutions and students; however, they may struggle to meet the ever-changing demands of what it means to be a teacher in the post-Columbine educational landscape.

Research limitations: While providing a starting point for understanding how educators sensemake their experiences with mass media, there are limitations. The sample size was limited to 55 tweets and 40 survey respondents. Furthermore, researcher bias is a concern. Both researchers work in higher education and have experienced the emotional “heaviness” that comes with discussions of school shootings.

Originality/value: This study provides insights into how educators use mass media to sensemake school shootings as both content producer and consumer. Findings indicate that through the identification of patterns within educators’ sensemaking processes, educational institutions can develop better systems for processing the effect of gun violence on the teaching experience and within the classroom.

Details

Theorizing Criminality and Policing in the Digital Media Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-112-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools…

3499

Abstract

Purpose

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of protective measures, policies, and school/neighborhood characteristics on school violence.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study were part of the School Survey on Crime and Safety collected in 2006. The dependent measures of school violence include reports of violence, threatened attack with a weapon, attack with weapon, and gun possession. The sample was divided into high schools and all other grades to consider differences in levels of school violence among grade levels in relation to various law enforcement security measures, school security measures, and school characteristics.

Findings

Findings revealed mixed and often counterproductive results for law enforcement and school security efforts to control school violence. School characteristics, such as reports of bullying, location, and gang activity yielded numerous statistically significant findings. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.

Originality/value

This study differs from much of the previous literature, which typically examines student and administrator attitudes about victimization and crime prevention. The current study examines detailed information on the actual effects of school violence prevention efforts. Furthermore, this study moves beyond most other works (that typically focus on high schools) as it considers school safety approaches by different grade levels.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Robert E. Looney

Addresses the question of whether military expenditures in the Arabworld have been at the expense of human capital development. Mainlyfinds that countries in the Arab…

Abstract

Addresses the question of whether military expenditures in the Arab world have been at the expense of human capital development. Mainly finds that countries in the Arab world have experienced increases in human capital development associated with increased rates of military participation (armed forces per capita). This phenomenon is in sharp contrast with that found in non‐Arab countries. Also this phenomenon appears to be relatively recent, increasing in strength during the period after 1980. In part Arab governments have chosen to subsidize the education of increased numbers of civilians during periods of steppedup military expenditures with the understanding that upon completion of training those individuals will serve some time in the military.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Angella Napakol and Samuel Kazibwe

Vaccination became a vital tool in the prevention against COVID-19 worldwide. The government of Uganda rolled out its first phase of vaccination in March 2021, targeting…

Abstract

Vaccination became a vital tool in the prevention against COVID-19 worldwide. The government of Uganda rolled out its first phase of vaccination in March 2021, targeting specific prioritised groups including health workers, armed personnel and teachers among others. Amidst the struggles to procure, administer and convince people about the safety of the vaccine, various, and at times seemingly credible influences came up to warn people against being vaccinated. Different reasons, specifically with regard to safety were raised by critiques and as such, some people including those in priority groups opted out of taking the vaccine. Due to this ambivalence in regard to COVID-19 vaccination, in 2021, government directed that all teachers who had not been vaccinated should not be allowed in schools upon reopening in 2022. This mixed approach study therefore, interrogated how teachers, as part of the priority groups, perceived of COVID-19 related vaccination, what level of knowledge they had about COVID-19 vaccination and their sources of information. In addition, tests were done to find out how perception and attitudes, level of knowledge and sources of information affected uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Results indicate that teachers hold different conflicting views about COVID-19 vaccines. That although the majority get their information from traditional media, they have doubts, doubts about the cause and origin of COVID-19, about the intent behind vaccination and about their leaders.

Details

COVID-19 and the Media in Sub-Saharan Africa: Media Viability, Framing and Health Communication
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-272-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

Carmel Roofe

In a context where standardized testing and achievement scores have become the hallmark of accountability frameworks, the issue of social responsibility is not given much…

Abstract

Purpose

In a context where standardized testing and achievement scores have become the hallmark of accountability frameworks, the issue of social responsibility is not given much attention in schools in Jamaica. This has led to a continuous decline of the moral and spiritual dimension of schooling in the country. This is evidenced through an increase in school violence and other disparities among students. This paper aims to explore teachers’ perception of how they are prepared for their role as agents of social responsibility.

Design/methodology/approach

Through interviews of 16 in-service teachers, this research sought to explore teachers’ perception of how they are prepared for their role as agents of social responsibility. Each participant in the study was interviewed using a structured interview schedule comprising six questions. Data collected were transcribed and analyzed by sorting and identifying codes. Pattern codes were established which were then interpreted to form themes. Three themes emerged which are used to present findings.

Findings

Findings revealed that teachers had a shared understanding of social responsibility; they felt that they were prepared for this role through ad hoc curriculum encounters, were not adequately prepared for their role and social responsibility required a belief in the idea first before it can be taught.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from the research are used to present arguments in the paper for emphasis on preparing student teachers to be agents of social responsibility and for a rethinking of teacher preparation curriculum in Jamaica. The paper also presents strategies that can be used to guide the re-thinking of teacher preparation programmes.

Practical implications

Teacher preparation programmes represent the avenue through which teachers can be prepared to develop their social consciousness, so that they can in turn help students. The results of this paper are means of helping teacher educators understand this.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first since the early 1990s to discuss social responsibility as a key component of teacher preparation in Jamaica. It also fills the void of scarcity of research in Jamaica on teacher education on a whole and social responsibility in teacher education in particular.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Native American Bilingual Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-477-4

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Phil Beaumont and John Leopold

Increasingly public sector industrial relations have become the central concern of governments, practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this monograph is to…

Abstract

Increasingly public sector industrial relations have become the central concern of governments, practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this monograph is to review key developments in public sector industrial relations, particularly during the period of the Thatcher Government. The emphasis is on the public services, especially local government, the NHS and the civil service. In the first section we review trends in public sector employment (particularly in the light of Government policy to reduce it), wages (in a context of cash limits), and strikes and other forms of industrial action. In the second part we move from “outcomes” to consider recent developments in the structure, organisation and policy of the “actors” in public sector industrial relations. In particular, we examine union organisation, developments in personnel management, bargaining structure, wage determination machinery and procedures, dispute resolution and privatisation initiatives. Developments in these areas are set in the context of the traditional features which distinguish public sector industrial relations from other spheres. In many of the areas under consideration, trends and developments set in train by the post‐1979 Conservative Government are still in the process of being worked out. Overall public sector employment has fallen, but with considerable variation around the average. National wage disputes, with considerable numbers of working days lost, have characterised the public sector since 1979, but the frequency of industrial conflict should not be exaggerated. There are moves to decentralise union and management structures, but the consequences of this have yet to be realised. Pay, however, remains problematic for government, employing authorities and unions. Since 1981–2, public sector settlements have generally been below the rate of inflation, but above the cash limit. The ad hoc policy of determining public sector pay by a mixture of review bodies, measures of comparability and market forces has created an overall picture of confusion. Establishing a fair and rational system of public sector pay remains a key task for any future government.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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