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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Arif Syed and Kali Kalirajan

Empirical works on examining taxpayer compliance and judiciously targeting risky taxpayers from a population of large taxpayers are hitherto scarce. This paucity of…

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Abstract

Empirical works on examining taxpayer compliance and judiciously targeting risky taxpayers from a population of large taxpayers are hitherto scarce. This paucity of research has been the main result of the limited set of taxpaid data available at a micro level to researchers. It is in this context, the objective of this paper is to suggest a benchmarking method, which takes into account firm‐specific, particularly governance characteristics, to identify and measure the extent of taxpayer compliance with the limited amount of data available. It is expected that this method will be of much value to tax administrations and compliance managers. Our approach to compliance is based on comparisons among taxpayers of the extent of under‐reporting of income, as well as over‐reporting of reconciliation deduction and cost items. The workability of the proposed model is demonstrated using data from the Australian services industry.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2019

Imtiaz Arif, Lubna Khan and Syed Ali Raza

This study aims to investigate the effect of corruption on military expenditures in three income level countries. An annual data series of 97 countries covering…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of corruption on military expenditures in three income level countries. An annual data series of 97 countries covering high-income, middle-income, and low-income regions from 1997 to 2015 is used.

Design/methodology/approach

The cross-sectional dependency and integration property of the data series was checked before applying the generalized method of moments approach to test the model.

Findings

The results of the system generalized method of moments approach suggest that corruption increases the military budget of high-income countries, whereas corruption reduces the military budget of the middle- and low-income countries.

Originality/value

This paper offers some substantial implications for the policymakers of each income group to curb corruption and improve economic development.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Syed Tehseen Jawaid, Lubna Khan and Imtiaz Arif

Despite the reasonable surge of remittances and imports in Pakistan, very less attention has been given to this area. To bridge the gap, this study aims to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the reasonable surge of remittances and imports in Pakistan, very less attention has been given to this area. To bridge the gap, this study aims to explore the relationship of worker’s remittances and imports of Pakistan at both aggregate and disaggregate levels. Also, this research focuses on investigating whether remitted income substitute or complement imports of the country.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve these goals, the authors use annual time-series data from 1974–2016.

Findings

Empirical findings obtained from the autoregressive distributed lag model method suggest that remittances substitute imports in Pakistan. It is also found that remittances not only substitute aggregate imports but also act as a substitute at different disaggregated levels. Further, it is documented that higher economic growth increases imports, whereas the real exchange rate for imports is inversely related to imports at both levels.

Originality/value

These empirical findings also draw some substantive policy implications for the state owners and policy advisers.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Wahaj Ahmed Khan, Syed Tehseen Jawaid and Imtiaz Arif

This paper aims to determine the preferable destinations of money laundered from Pakistan by using the Walker’s Gravity Model and to estimate the amount of money laundered…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the preferable destinations of money laundered from Pakistan by using the Walker’s Gravity Model and to estimate the amount of money laundered through 156 countries. The research aims to facilitate policymakers and regulators to provide more efficient guidelines to counter the problem of money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a descriptive and quantitative approach. This study uses the Walker’s Gravity Model updated by Unger et al. (2006) to measure money laundering in Pakistan; Walker’s Gravity Model was first developed by John Walker in 1994.

Findings

The results indicate that Pakistani money launderers preferred countries having large financial sectors and political stability to hide their illegal money. In addition, the study estimates the amount of money laundered and shows that Pakistan has lost bulk of funds.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation is the non-availability of reliable data as the activity is hidden. Reliable data is either not available officially or scattered. Available data only reflect aspects that are reported. Non-availability of statistics for all years and countries resulted in the omission of some countries.

Practical implications

The study helps legislators and policymakers, including the Ministry of Finance, State Bank of Pakistan, Securities and Exchange Commission Pakistan, and other regulators, including law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, in formulating effective policies, regulations and internal control.

Originality/value

The study helps to identify the need of estimating the amount of money laundered to fight the problem effectively. Very few efforts have made to determine the size and the amount of money laundered, and this is the first study to determine the amount of money flowing out of Pakistan with the purpose of laundering.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Muhammad Ahmed, Syed Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Tahir Jan and Arif Hassan

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five components namely, sincerity, excitement, sophistication, competence and ruggedness. This model has been tested and supported by various scholars in the past. Similarly, it also attracted a lot of criticism especially in terms of generalizability across countries and cultures. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to study Aaker’s model from an Islamic perspective; second, considering the dearth of brand personality knowledge in the services sector, to develop Islamic Banks’ Brand Personality (IBBP) model.

Design/methodology/approach

To propose IBBP model, traits in Aaker’s model have been investigated in the light of selected Quranic verses and sayings of Prophet Muhammad (ahadith). Later on, content validation was conducted as a pilot study with experts from the relevant fields.

Findings

Findings exhibit that Quran and hadith clearly elaborate and support majority dimensions of the existing model. Importantly, three new dimensions, namely, trustworthiness, justice and Shariah compliance, were added to develop a comprehensive IBBP model. Once the dimensions of IBBP model were finalized, the underlying items were content validated from 12 experts. Most of the items were approved; some were recommended for amendments and a few items were eliminated.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the branding as well as bank marketing literature as it is the first Islamic banks’ brand personality framework. With the help of IBBP model, Islamic banks can create a better brand image, use advertising strategies effectively and ultimately retain existing and attract more potential customers.

Social implications

This research elaborates the personality traits of Muslim consumer market. Following IBBP model, financial needs of Muslim consumer market can be catered effectively.

Originality/value

The IBBP model being first of its kind is significant for Islamic banking industry as it reflects dimensions that are supported by the Quran and hadith, and therefore suits Muslim customer market.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Syed Ahmad Ali, Arif Hassan, Nurita Juhdi and Siti Salwani Razali

Despite widespread acceptance and exponential growth of Islamic banking across many countries, research indicates some critical issues that can potentially downturn this…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite widespread acceptance and exponential growth of Islamic banking across many countries, research indicates some critical issues that can potentially downturn this industry. Literature suggests that like other stakeholders such as customers, some employees too have ambivalent attitude towards its concept and practices. This calls for an empirical assessment. As no such comprehensive instrument was available, this study aims to develop a scale measuring employees' attitude towards Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

This scale development process begins with literature review pertinent to employees’ perspective in Islamic banking, followed by a series of steps critical to achieve robustness and to ensure validity and reliability of the instrument. Research methods include a detailed set of qualitative interviews, content validation, pilot testing and exploratory factor analysis with subsequent confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The final scale embodies five orthogonal dimensions: awareness of Islamic banking, usefulness of Islamic banking, perception of Shariah compliance, patronage towards Islamic banking and attractiveness towards Islamic banking.

Research limitations/implications

This instrument may be used both by research scholars and practicing managers to measure employees’ attitude towards Islamic banking system and practices. It may also serve as a diagnostic tool to identify the areas of strength and weaknesses in the Islamic banking system as perceived by the employees themselves.

Originality/value

An instrument to measure employees’ attitude towards Islamic banking system is much needed as no such comprehensive instrument is available to the best of authors’ knowledge. The study attempts to fulfil this need.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Muhammad Abubakr Naeem, Mustafa Raza Rabbani, Sitara Karim and Syed Mabruk Billah

This study aims to examine the hedge and safe-haven properties of the Sukuk and green bond for the stock markets pre- and during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the hedge and safe-haven properties of the Sukuk and green bond for the stock markets pre- and during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hedge and safe-haven characteristics of Sukuk and green bonds for stock markets, the study first uses the methodology proposed by Ratner and Chiu (2013). Next, the authors estimate the hedge ratios and hedge effectiveness of using Sukuk and green bonds in a portfolio with stock markets.

Findings

Strong safe-haven features of ethical (green) bonds reveal that adding green bonds into the investment portfolios brings considerable diversification avenues for the investors who tend to take fewer risks in periods of economic stress and turbulence. The hedge ratio and hedge effectiveness estimates reveal that green bonds provide sufficient evidence of the hedge effectiveness for various international stocks.

Practical implications

The study has significant implications for faith-based investors, ethical investors, policymakers and regulatory bodies. Religious investors can invest in Sukuk to relish low-risk and interest-free investments, whereas green investors can satisfy their socially responsible motives by investing in these investment streams. Policymakers can direct the businesses to include these diversifiers for portfolio and risk management.

Originality/value

The study provides novel insights in the testing hedge and safe-haven attributes of green bonds and Sukuk while using unique methodologies to identify multiple low-risk investors for investors following the uncertain COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 2 February 2022

Jawaid Ahmed Qureshi, Aamir Firoz Shamsi and Farrah Arif

The learning outcomes are as follows: to analyze the multidimensional and complex crises, and market stature of a company that was a market and industry leader in a…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: to analyze the multidimensional and complex crises, and market stature of a company that was a market and industry leader in a developing country; to evaluate and interpret the outcomes of decisions pertaining declining profits, outstanding receivables, branding, marketing and radical reforms to overcome the challenges of sustainable growth, customers and employees’ loyalty, market stature and leadership crises; and to design strategic solutions for sustaining its leadership position and combating severe challenges.

Case overview/synopsis

The purpose of this paper is to ponder upon various crises that Pakistan State Oil (PSO) was facing, so that learners can critically analyze, assess and design strategic solutions for it. PSO was the state-run market leader in the petroleum industry. The company had been struggling to combat multiple types of turmoil at a time. Its huge fund of receivables was blocked in circular debt that caused the company budget constraints and deficits. Due to a government policy shift, the demand for its furnace oil substantially reduced and profits plummeted. The countless internal and external crises posed severe menace to its competitive position vis-a-vis its rivals. This qualitative case study garners data from eight interviews from senior managers in the petroleum industry and adds content analysis technique to acquire pertinent data from renowned media sources and subsequent analysis. The drastic crises left PSO with dearth of funds and declining profitability. Consequently, due to limited marketing budget, creativity of its marketing team for devising effective marketing programs to raise market share was compromised. PSO underwent the issues of brand sustainability, sustainable growth, customers and employees’ loyalty, and market stature to financial and leadership crises. However, despite limitations, it still enjoyed a market leadership position among its rivals in the industry by occupying more than half of the chunk of market in the petroleum industry. This is a unique case study of a state-owned giant company facing multidimensional menaces. It offers tremendous learning opportunities for students who can devise creative strategic solutions and link theories and models with practice.

Complexity academic level

Graduate (MBA), MS, PhD (management and administrative sciences); Suitable for teaching in chapters: Anywhere but ideally near the middle or end of the above courses.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CCS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Hira Rani, Syed Mir Muhammad Shah, Waheed Ali Umrani, Jawad Syed and Gul Afshan

Utilizing affective event theory (AET), this paper aims to understand the affective reasoning behind choosing to speak up for or against abusive supervision. For this…

Abstract

Purpose

Utilizing affective event theory (AET), this paper aims to understand the affective reasoning behind choosing to speak up for or against abusive supervision. For this purpose, the authors examine the underlying mechanism of employee state paranoia in the relationship between abusive supervision and promotive and prohibitive voice of employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 307 microfinance bank employees were collected using supervisor–subordinate nested design and time-lag approach. The analysis was performed through partial least square (PLS) structural equation modeling using Smart PLS software.

Findings

The results support the direct relationship of abusive supervision with promotive and prohibitive voice. They also support the mediating relation of paranoia arousal between abusive supervision and promotive voice. However, the results do not support the mediating relationship of paranoia arousal between abusive supervision and prohibitive voice.

Originality/value

In light of the literature drawn from AET and empirical data, this study forwards robust recommendations for theory and practice and may assist future researchers interested in the role of employee paranoia arousal.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Syed Zamberi Ahmad and Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif

– The purpose of this paper is to highlight key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to their high-growth potential, women-owned SMEs in developing countries are of particular interest. The International Financial Corporation and McKinsey built a detailed database for micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises. The data derived from the readily available global data sets provide coverage of a large number of countries and national statistics.

Findings

Since financing is an important means by which to pursue growth opportunities, addressing the specific needs of women entrepreneurs (WE) in accessing finance must be part of the development agenda.

Practical implications

This paper offers valuable practical insights to policy makers to establish a supportive, enabling environment that will facilitate access to financial services for WE in their respective countries; lead efforts to identify, evaluate, and support the replication of successful models for expanding financial services to WE; and lead efforts to gather gender-disaggregated data on small-, and medium-sized enterprise finance in a coordinated fashion.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it offers insightful information about key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing women’s entrepreneurship and increasing their access to finance.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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