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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2018

Arfat Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a perspective…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a perspective whereby intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction are considered as proxy to organizational offerings, while multi overall job satisfaction and dimensional organizational commitment as employee’ attitudinal reaction to the organizational offerings. Under the aforementioned notion, the present study intends to examine the influence of job characteristics on employees’ attitudes, such as, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as psychological response to job characteristics. In a way, the study attempts to insight into how employee’ reciprocate to the perceived obligation toward its organization. The study also aims to supplement the empirical evidence about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. Although various studies exhibit positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been consistently reported. However, for the managerial implication, the identification of employee physiological and psychological needs to gauge the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to its environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization is imperative. In this context, this study makes a humble attempt to clear the relationships in the perspective of reciprocation between organization and its employees. Thus, this study attempts to illustrate how feeling a need to reciprocate, those who experienced strong satisfaction with job characteristics appear to have had a sense of moral duty to the organization can be helpful in understanding the processes by which organizational inducements exert their influence on other employee attitudes and behaviors. Evidently, while the link between employees’ satisfaction with their job and high organizational commitment, on the one hand, and low intentions to leave on the other is fairly straightforward, yet there in need to study these variables as exogenous and endogenous to inquire about their causation. Also, the available present literature on the understudy concern genuinely lacks adequate empirical material about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction as such some author hold that intrinsic characteristic of job better predict job satisfaction while as another set of behavioral scientists found extrinsic job characteristics as prime determinant of job satisfaction compare to the intrinsic worth of their jobs. The present study was conducted in the state of depressed economy where unemployment rate is as high as 194 percent it was found interesting to investigate the about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. The present study also attempts to supplement the empirical evidence in this direction.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the study use the tenets of situational theories of employee’ attitude which assume that employee’ attitude results from the psychological evaluation of one’s job characteristics or other aspects of the environment in the organization; therefore, the study integrates the job characteristics as the organizational offerings to its employee and employees attitude like job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as reciprocity reaction to the organizational offerings. The structural equation model was used to frames the intricacy job characteristics, job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Ten job characteristics were identified with which employees experience at the workplace as organizational offerings. These include salary, recognition, co-workers, supervision, organizational policies, promotion, working condition, task requirement, job security and nature of work. Subsequently, these identified facets were divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction, and were considering as proxy to the organizational offerings to its employees. These job characteristics were identified during in-depth interviews and discussions with the respondents, while overall job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions were considered as employee’s psychological reactions to the organizational offerings. The sample consists of 654 hospital employees, working at the different hospital across state. In order to ensure the representation of the entire human capital, employees working under different levels of occupational status and different sectors of economy were included in the for the purpose of data collection. The number of employees from each hospital has been selected through proportionate method. Employees from each hospital were selected on the basis of the chit method. Measurement tools Questionnaire method was used to collect the data for the present study. A five-point likert type scale was used for the sake of maintaining uniformity in measuring the variables. All the variables were measured with multiple-item scales, questionnaire item used to measure different constructs in this study are derived from the previously established studies. As such, multidimensional organizational commitment construct was measured using items drawn from Meyer and Allen (1991) scale. Job characteristics and employee’ turnover intentions scale was adapted from the study conducted by Ali Muhammad et al. (2008). The instrument used for the present study has universal application. Therefore the results thus produce are of universal significance. The reliability and validity of measurement tools for the study was established by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Findings

The findings from the study reveal employees’ subjective evaluation to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job contribute to the formation of their reciprocal perspective of psychological attitude toward its job and organization characterized as their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As such, better evaluation of job content and job context by the employees leads to the sense of obligation and commitment toward the organization, hence reduces their intentions to discord organizational membership. The findings also reveal that employees tend to incline their job satisfaction more toward the extrinsic worth of job than the intrinsic worth. While as both, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, explains relatively equal variation in the employees’ turnover intentions. The relatively strong correlation of extrinsic characteristics of job could be attributed to the fact that professionals generally have limited control over extrinsic factors and have high degree of control over intrinsic elements. Therefore, their perceptions of the job are particularly dependent on the degree of satisfaction with the extrinsic factors (Pearson and Seiler, 1983).

Originality/value

Although there are various studies manifested the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions, for all that, the present work is an attempt to deem these relationships in a different panorama to bring more insight in the subject of organizational behavior. In this study, the relationship among the job characteristics, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions were considered in a perspective of reciprocity norms. The study opens new horizons to the researchers across the globe, whereby organizational and job characteristics are considered as catalyst for the employee’ attitude and can be study and analyze in a functional relationship model. A new regime of paradigm may investigate the functional relationship between employer offerings as an input and employee attitudes as an output, with more emphasis on the organizational equilibrium. Hence, study encompass the managerial implication by gauging the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to the workplace environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization. In this way, the propositions expatiated in the present work improves the understanding for the implications of various motivational theories, different organizational theories and human resource management models. Moreover, this work substantiates and provides insight about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic job factors on job satisfaction and opens debate for the generalization of Herzberg’s motivation theory.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Mohammad Younus Bhat, Arfat Ahmad Sofi and Shambhu Sajith

This study explores the interplay among climate change, economic growth and energy consumption in G20 countries by considering the role of green energy.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the interplay among climate change, economic growth and energy consumption in G20 countries by considering the role of green energy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses various empirical tools to determine the association between carbon emissions, economic growth, renewables, non-renewables, population and urbanization for a panel of G20 countries between 1990 and 2014.

Findings

Empirical outcomes from various empirical tools reveal a positive and significant impact of economic growth, non-renewable energy consumption and urbanization on carbon emissions, and their increase will further lead to the deterioration of environmental quality. The elasticity coefficient of renewable energy coefficient is negative and significant implying an increase in its consumption will improve environmental quality. Panel causality test results reveal the existence of both short-run and long-run causality among the variables. Therefore, results infer that a reduction in the consumption of non-renewable and substitution with renewables will have a significant impact on carbon emission mitigation.

Originality/value

Through this study, the authors suggest the sustainable use of renewables as they are sustainable, secure, efficient, environmentally justifiable and economically viable sources of energy. Therefore, replacing traditional non-renewables with modern renewables has the potential in avoiding the dangerous impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) particularly in the G20 countries. This paper intends to guide policymakers regarding the environmental quality and renewable energy consumption required to hold back the fossil fuel dependence for a cleaner and greener planet.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Mohammad Younus Bhat, M.S. Bhatt and Arfat Ahmad Sofi

Biodiversity loss has become widespread since current rates are potentially catastrophic for species and habitat integrity, and the Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir…

Abstract

Purpose

Biodiversity loss has become widespread since current rates are potentially catastrophic for species and habitat integrity, and the Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir (India) is not a distinctive case. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation of the Park.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey-based choice experiment method was carried out at the Dachigam National Park, an area that is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. Attributes selected for analysis through choice experiments were endangered species, national park area, research and education opportunities the park withholds. To estimate WTP, a monetary variable involving an increase in entry fee was also incorporated. To obtain the estimates, the authors use the augmented conditional logit model.

Findings

WTP for the selected attributes per visitor turned out to be ₹302.07 for enhancing the population of endangered species, ₹121.91 for improvement in the park area and ₹171.64 for increasing research and education opportunities the park withholds.

Research limitations/implications

Though the study uncovers very important aspects of evaluating the biological resources, albeit with some limitations. The study estimates WTP for biodiversity conservation using a conditional logit model, which is based on a specific area and population sample. It would be better if a broader sample is considered to trace out the findings for meaningful generalization. Besides, the results can be replicated for similar kinds of samples.

Practical implications

With the use of benefits transfer method, this study aims to provide policymakers with useful information to manage biodiversity attributes across the Himalayan region.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is to provide a critical understanding of the valuation to facilitate the concerned body for better planning and management of biological resources. The findings of the present study can be used as an indicator of the inherent economic importance of biological resources across the Himalayan range for their better management and conservation that can help in ensuring sustainable utilization of these resources.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Arfat Ahmad Sofi and Raja Sethu Durai S.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate convergence hypothesis in a balanced panel of 22 Indian states for the time period of 1980-81 to 2010-11 by applying nonparametric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate convergence hypothesis in a balanced panel of 22 Indian states for the time period of 1980-81 to 2010-11 by applying nonparametric model setting in a panel framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses nonparametric and semi-parametric panel data methods to test the absolute and conditional convergence, respectively, and examines the income convergence using nonparametric panel data methods with state specific effects taken into consideration. These models are being estimated by the iterative process for a balanced panel of state wise per capita income and other conditioning variables for the time period of 1980-81 to 2010-11. For removing the fixed effects, the authors follow within transformation procedure according to the feasibility of the problem. Since convergence is estimated by regressing dependent variable on initial level of independent variable (as growth rate of income and per capita income in this case). So using usual transformation for removing the fixed effects is not feasible because by doing so the authors may end up with singular matrices on both sides of the regression model.

Findings

The results reject the null of parametric specification for both absolute as well as conditional convergence model. As to the outcome of the empirical analysis, the findings reveal that the Indian states are diverging in absolute sense and converging on conditional basis. Convergence happens to be consistent and conditional upon public expenditure, power generation share of primary and tertiary sector to Gross State Domestic Product.

Originality/value

The originality of the study is in its application of advanced methodology to highlight the model misspecifications while testing the convergence hypothesis in earlier literature.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Arfat Ahmad Sofi and S. Raja Sethu Durai

This study aims to analyse the patterns of growth and income disparities and to have a future insight about its behaviour across 22 Indian states for the period from 1980-1981 to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the patterns of growth and income disparities and to have a future insight about its behaviour across 22 Indian states for the period from 1980-1981 to 2010-2011.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a three-stage methodological procedures to arrive at the results. First, the distributional aspect of per capita income has been analyzed by using Kuznets’s Inverted-U Hypothesis. Second, to analyse the relative performance across India states, the Shift Analysis Technique has been utilized. Finally, analyzing the future aspect of the growth and disparities among the low-, middle- and high-income states a catch process has been performed.

Findings

The empirical results rejects the Kuznets’s hypothesis for both aggregate and sectoral incomes across Indian states. The relative performance of Indian states shows signs of decreasing the income disparities over the time with a positive shift. Finally, the catch-up process among the low-, middle- and high-income states suggests different time bands for each group to narrow down or eliminate the income disparities in future.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature in three ways. First, examining the sectoral growth and disparities across Indian states by testing the Kuznets’s Inverted-U Hypothesis to highlight the specification issue; second, to measure the relative performance of Indian states over the time that can help us to find out the individual states that are purely responsible for income disparities in India. Finally, estimates of catch-up speed among Indian states provide a prediction about their behaviour to eradicate the disparities in future.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Funmilola Olubunmi Omotayo and Olasubomi Adetutu Adekunle

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could influence the readiness of Oyo state citizens in Nigeria to use the system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the survey research design, while the Technology Readiness Acceptance Model provides the theoretical framework. A two-stage sampling procedure (random and convenience) was used to select 500 Nigerian citizens, who are of voting age, while data were collected with a structured questionnaire.

Findings

Findings reveal that the citizens are ready to use the e-voting system if adopted by the Nigerian Government. Optimism and innovativeness are positively correlated, and perceived discomfort and perceived insecurity are negatively correlated, with readiness to use e-voting system by Oyo state citizens. The Technology Acceptance Model constructs (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use), as well as computer self-efficacy also have positive correlations with readiness to use of e-voting.

Research limitations/implications

The population of the study was limited to only citizens in one state of the federation; hence, the results cannot be generalised to all citizens in Nigeria.

Practical implications

The study contributes to existing knowledge on adoption and use of technology and confirms that optimism and innovativeness are motivators and discomfort and insecurity are inhibitors of intention to use and actual usage of technology. Hence, these constructs should be taken into account and promoted when Nigeria is planning to adopt the e-voting system.

Social implications

This paper could assist the Nigerian Government on the factors to consider when implementing the e-voting system.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first pieces of empirical research that attempted to investigate the factors that could promote acceptance and use of the e-voting system in Nigeria.

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2023

Arfat Manzoor, Andleebah Jan, Mohammad Shafi, Mohammad Ashraf Parry and Tawseef Mir

This study aims to assess the impact of personality traits, risk perception and perceived coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disruption on the investment behavior of individual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the impact of personality traits, risk perception and perceived coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disruption on the investment behavior of individual investors in the Indian stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a survey approach. The sample comprises 315 active retail investors investing in the Indian stock exchange. Two-stage analysis technique regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were used for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested through regression and ANN was adopted to validate the regression results.

Findings

Two regression models were modeled to test the research hypotheses. Findings showed that risk perception and COVID-19 disruption have a significant positive and neuroticism has a significant negative impact on short-term investment decisions, while the role of conscientiousness in determining short-term investment decisions was not found significant. Results also showed a positive impact of neuroticism and conscientiousness and a negative impact of risk perception on long-term investment decisions. The role of COVID-19 disruption was found negative but insignificant in predicting long-term investment decisions.

Practical implications

This study has practical implications for many parties like retail investors, financial advisors and policymakers. This study will assist the investors to realize that they do not always take rational financial decisions. This study will suggest the financial advisors to use the knowledge of behavioral finance in making the advisors' advisory and wealth management decisions. This study will also assist the policymakers to outline behaviorally well-informed policy decisions to protect the interests of investors.

Originality/value

India is one of the fast-growing economies in the world. India has a vast population of active investors and determining investors' investment behavior adds novelty to this study as developed economies have remained the main focus of previous studies. The other novel feature of this study is that this study tries to assess the impact of COVID-19 disruption along with personality traits and risk perception on investment behavior. The other valuable factor of this study is the use of ANN to predict the relative importance of the exogenous variables.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Mohd Abass Bhat, Shagufta Tariq Khan and Riyaz Ahmad Rainayee

This paper aims to examine employee perceptions of the labor market in the employee turnover intention model and explores how different situations outside work (labor market…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine employee perceptions of the labor market in the employee turnover intention model and explores how different situations outside work (labor market conditions) play a role in employee-organizational membership. In addition, it also examines the mediating role of commitment in the relationship between stress and the turnover model.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 628 private school teachers working in the economically depressed state of J&K (India), which were randomly selected. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for validation of a scale. Structural equation modeling and PROCESS by Hayes was used to test the hypothesized relationships between the study variables.

Findings

The antecedents of occupational stressors contribute negatively toward employees’ psychological state resulting in undesirable employee-organizational relationships such as high turnover intentions and low organizational commitment. Nevertheless, lack of external job opportunities compels employees to maintain organizational membership, even though against the stressful working environment.

Research limitations/implications

This study while acknowledging the inherent limitations, questionnaires are susceptible to and single sectional nature of the study poses limitations.

Practical implications

The practical implication explains that the employee and organization relationship is governed more by external economic conditions than by the psychological feelings of the employees toward the organization (organizational commitment). As also, the moral system of employees, as well as their feelings toward the noble profession makes them feel morally exalted and this binds them to the membership of the organization.

Originality/value

This study mainly focuses on, to understand if and how the conditions of the labor market relate to the employees’ attitudes. This would enable us to gain more insights to the systematic relations of employees’ attitudinal variables such as occupational stress, organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions.

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

M. Kaladhar

The present study spotlights the single and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to determine the optimal machining conditions and the predictive modeling for surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study spotlights the single and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to determine the optimal machining conditions and the predictive modeling for surface roughness (Ra) and cutting tool flank wear (VB) while hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (35 HRC) under dry environment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, Taguchi L16 design of experiments methodology was chosen. The experiments were performed under dry machining conditions using TiSiN-TiAlN nanolaminate PVD-coated cutting tool on which Taguchi and responses surface methodology (RSM) for single objective optimization and MCDM methods like the multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis (MOORA) were applied to attain optimal set of machining parameters. The predictive models for each response and multiresponse were developed using RSM-based regression analysis. S/N ratios, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pareto diagram, Tukey's HSD test were carried out on experimental data for profound analysis.

Findings

Optimal set of machining parameters were obtained as cutting speed: at 180 m/min., feed rate: 0.05 mm/rev., and depth of cut: 0.15 mm; cutting speed: 145 m/min., feed rate: 0.20 mm/rev. and depth of cut: 0.1 mm for Ra and VB, respectively. ANOVA showed feed rate (96.97%) and cutting speed (58.9%) are dominant factors for Ra and VB, respectively. A remarkable improvement observed in Ra (64.05%) and VB (69.94%) after conducting confirmation tests. The results obtained through the MOORA method showed the optimal set of machining parameters (cutting speed = 180 m/min, feed rate = 0.15 mm/rev and depth of cut = 0.25 mm) for minimizing the Ra and VB.

Originality/value

This work contributes to realistic application for manufacturing industries those dealing with AISI 4340 steel of 35 HRC. The research contribution of present work including the predictive models will provide some useful guidelines in the field of manufacturing, in particular, manufacturing of gear shafts for power transmission, turbine shafts, fasteners, etc.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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