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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kwabena Dei Ofori-Attah

This chapter focuses on the definition of the Arab World. This is followed by a treatise on the meaning and purpose of comparative education. Next, the origin and…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the definition of the Arab World. This is followed by a treatise on the meaning and purpose of comparative education. Next, the origin and development of comparative education in the Arab World is discussed. Trends and progress of comparative education in the region receive significant attention and discussion. Finally, the research methodologies and research interests of comparative educationists are examined.

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Comparative and International Education: Survey of an Infinite Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-392-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Ron Berger, Ram Herstein, Daniel McCarthy and Sheila Puffer

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of Wasta, a culturally based system of social networks of exchange among in-group members in the Arab world, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of Wasta, a culturally based system of social networks of exchange among in-group members in the Arab world, as exemplified by three groups of Arabs in the Palestinian Authority, and then compares it to Guanxi (China), Sviazi (Russia) and JaanPechaan (India). The use of social networks is a common business model around the world to accomplish business objectives and is especially relied upon in emerging economies where formal institutions are weak. It is important to understand the commonalities and differences in the use of reciprocity in various cultural contexts in order to conduct business effectively. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the structure of Wasta and how it is perceived and constructed among three Arab social groups, and then compare and contrast it with social business models in three other high context cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative approach based on interviews to better understand the relationships involved.

Findings

The findings provide the foundation for a number of critical insights for non-Arab managers seeking to do business in the Arab world. For international managers to conduct business successfully, it is essential to understand how Wasta works, and establish relationships with members of influential social networks by building trust over time such that they create Wasta for themselves and indirectly for their firms. Using Wasta in the Arab world, as noted above, is similar to doing business successfully in other emerging economies such as using Sviazi in Russia (McCarthy and Puffer, 2008; Berger et al., 2017), Guanxi in China (Yen et al., 2011) and Jaan–Pechaan in India (Bhattacharjee and Zhang, 2011). The authors feel more confident in stating this view after comparing Wasta with these other three concepts, and noting that all four are built upon the same fundamental constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The authors recognize that the study is limited in terms of the geographical sample since it does not include any non-Palestinians, although the managers the authors sampled came from various regions in the Palestinian authority. Additionally, Palestinian managers are highly educated and mobile, and can be found in many other Arab countries working in managerial positions (Zineldin, 2002), thus potentially broadening the generalizability of the findings. Nonetheless, the samples would be called ones of convenience rather than randomly drawn from the three groups, since the latter would be extremely difficult to execute not only in the Palestinian Authority but in most of the Arab world due to the culturally based reluctance to provide sensitive information to those outside one’s network. Despite the difficulties that might be involved in exploring such culturally sensitive issues as the authors did in this study, the benefits in knowledge gained can be of significant importance to the study of international business in emerging and transition economies.

Originality/value

Little research has focused on the use of Wasta in the Arab world, a gap which this paper addresses. The authors do so by analyzing the views of Wasta held by three important groups – leaders, business people and students. While each type of reciprocity has its own unique characteristics, the authors focus on three interrelated constructs that have been found to underlie the use of reciprocity in various cultures. In the Arab world, these are Hamola, which incorporates reciprocity; Somah, that incorporates trust; and Mojamala, which incorporates empathy through social business networks.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Rita Merhej

Research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world has traditionally focused on socio-cultural barriers that deprive persons with mental illness from their fundamental…

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Abstract

Purpose

Research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world has traditionally focused on socio-cultural barriers that deprive persons with mental illness from their fundamental human right for privacy and informed consent. The purpose of this paper is to address the question whether or not mental health legislations in a number of Arab countries effectively safeguard the human rights of people with mental illness and protect them from stigmatizing and discriminatory practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative review of literature was performed over two rounds of search, targeting published research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world from year 2000 until now and existing national mental health legislations in the Arab world, using English and Arabic databases.

Findings

The review reveals that beyond society and culture, persistence of mental illness stigma in the Arab world may be explained by absent or inefficient monitoring mechanisms of mental health legislations and policies within the health-care setting. Although integration of mental health services into the primary health care system is being gradually implemented as a step toward de-stigmatization of mental illness, more remains to be done to change the stigmatizing behavior of the health personnel toward mental illness.

Originality/value

Mental health authorities in the Arab world need to be more aware of the public perceptions explaining people’s fear and reluctance to seek mental health care, so as to ensure that the control and monitoring mechanisms at both the primary and mental health care levels foster a human rights, culturally competent, patient-friendly and non-stigmatizing model of mental health care.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Nadeem Siddique, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Shakil Ahmad, Akhtar Abbas and Muhammad Ajmal Khan

This study aims to investigate the research productivity of library and information science (LIS) authors affiliated with the 22 countries of the Arab League. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the research productivity of library and information science (LIS) authors affiliated with the 22 countries of the Arab League. It also identifies the top countries, organizations, authors, journals, natures of collaboration, and frequently used keywords in LIS research in the Arab world.

Design/methodology/approach

Bibliometric methods were used to evaluate the research performance of the authors affiliated with library organizations in the Arab region. The Elsevier Scopus database was selected for data retrieval. A comprehensive search strategy was adopted to retrieve 863 publications contributed by LIS authors affiliated with the Arab countries. VOS viewer, Biblioshiny, BiblioAnalyitics, Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel were used for data visualization and analysis.

Findings

This paper presents the dynamics and the state of the LIS research in the Arab region published between 1951 and 2021. The results of the study have highlighted an upward trend in the growth of the publications, especially in the past four years. The largest number of studies were published in the year 2020. The country-wise analysis ranked Kuwait and Saudi Arabia as the top LIS research producing countries with five and four researchers, respectively. The Kuwait University, the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University were the three most productive organizations. Academic libraries, social media, bibliometrics, information-seeking behavior, information literacy and knowledge management were identified as the major areas of interest for the researchers. Internet and open access were topics that had gained recent popularity, while the digital library, research data management, green librarianship, link data, cloud computing, library leadership, library automation and artificial intelligence were identified as areas requiring further attention. Furthermore, the single-author pattern was found to be the most preferred pattern.

Practical implications

The findings of this study would help prospective researchers in choosing the neglected areas of research that require further investigation. They would also help policymakers in identifying factors that need more attention and allocation of research funds.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first comprehensive bibliometric study that presents a holistic picture of the LIS research in the Arab region.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2015

Morris Kalliny, Mamoun Benmamoun, Robert A. Cropf and Seung H. Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of large business corporations, particularly media corporations, such as television (e.g. satellite networks)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of large business corporations, particularly media corporations, such as television (e.g. satellite networks), newspapers and social media (e.g. Facebook), on institutional change in the Arab world, which directly impact political and civil liberties in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

Although there are several methods to measure institutional change, this paper relied on Kaufmann et al. (2010)’s governance indicators that capture, historically, how authority is exercised in a nation state. As the focus of this paper is on how information flows have empowered citizens in the Arab world, we built a panel database around one relevant governance indicator: “Voice and Accountability”. As a measure of governance, “Voice and Accountability” summarizes the condition of political, civil and human rights such as freedom of expression and freedom of association in a given country. This indicator takes scores ranging from 2.5, corresponding to strong governance, to −2.5, corresponding to weak governance.

Findings

As predicted, the information flows variable has a positive and significant effect on institutional change. Table II also suggests that political globalization has a positive and significant effect on institutional change in the Arab world. In contrast, the variables for cultural proximity and human capital are associated with negative effects on institutional change.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in the sense that it tackles a growing trend in the Arab world, namely, the impact of media on institutions.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Mamoun Benmamoun, Morris Kalliny and Robert A. Cropf

Although multinational enterprises (MNEs), according to John Dunning's work, are driven by motives of ownership, location, internalization and, ultimately, higher returns…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although multinational enterprises (MNEs), according to John Dunning's work, are driven by motives of ownership, location, internalization and, ultimately, higher returns, these business entities, by virtue of their transnational products and services, and extensive reach and resources, provide direct and indirect mechanisms that can shape political and social outcomes. This paper seeks to explore those mechanisms in the context of the so‐called “Arab Spring”, the popular uprising that has ensued in a number of Arab countries. The paper also aims to explore virtual public spheres, the platform from which the Arab Spring was launched, and which owes much to the presence of MNEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is grounded on the theoretical construct of the virtual public sphere. The approaches taken are that of a general review and secondary research.

Findings

The main findings of this paper are three‐fold. First, in the examination of the role of MNEs and the virtual public sphere in the Arab Awakening, it is found that the new information and networking technologies have already made a sizable impact in terms of paving the way toward political and social changes. Second, it is found that foreign investments in Arab media, mobile, and internet markets are dominantly regional. Third, behind the social media phenomenon in the Arab world are “born‐global” American firms (MNEs), notably Facebook, Inc., Twitter, Inc., and Google, Inc.

Originality/value

Most research on the Arab Spring has not incorporated the likely distinctive influence of MNEs. In addition, the paper highlights the association between regional and transnational orientations of business activities of multinational firms and political outcomes.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Abstract

Details

Challenges of the Muslim World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53243-5

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Mirghani S. Mohamed, Kevin J. O'Sullivan and Vincent Ribière

The paper seeks to pinpoint new directions of the evolution of knowledge in the Arab region, and to outline the role of knowledge management principles in constructing the

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1852

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to pinpoint new directions of the evolution of knowledge in the Arab region, and to outline the role of knowledge management principles in constructing the knowledge society.

Design/methodology/approach

The article addresses initiatives towards narrowing the knowledge gap and building an egalitarian knowledge society in the Arab region. It reviews, interprets and relates the relevant literature and sheds the light on the Arab region's future plans.

Findings

The article outlines some of the regionally relevant elements needed for building the knowledge society. It also suggests some means of tapping the diversified workforce's tacit knowledge, reversing the “brain drain,” and building potential leadership models.

Originality/value

This article represents an overview and interpretation of the role of knowledge management as it relates to the effectiveness of concepts such as “knowmadism” and the practicality of “megatribe knowledge.” The article provides rendition and a roadmap for decision makers, knowledge workers, and future researchers in the domain of the “knowledge society” within the Arab region.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Abbas J. Ali

In the last few decades the Arab states have come to play animportant role in the world economy and international politics. We havewitnessed an increasing interest in the…

Abstract

In the last few decades the Arab states have come to play an important role in the world economy and international politics. We have witnessed an increasing interest in the social, political, and economic aspects of the Arab world. Despite such increasing interest, Arab scholars and business professors have not made significant progress in scholarly contribution and in teaching business management. Seeks to provide an analysis of the situation and suggests research topics in the areas of business and management applicable to development in the Arab world.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Islam Abdelbary

Abstract

Details

Reviving Arab Reform: Development Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-318-3

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