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Currently, students with learning disabilities make up the largest group of students receiving special education services across the country. To understand the themes and…
Currently, students with learning disabilities make up the largest group of students receiving special education services across the country. To understand the themes and dimensions of learning disabilities, it is important to explore the historical progression of learning disabilities over time, including characteristics and outcomes of these students. This chapter will provide readers with in-depth information on the characteristics, national representation, demographics, and educational and long-term outcomes of students with learning disabilities.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools (Kauffman, Mock, & Simpson, 2011). Many of these…
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools (Kauffman, Mock, & Simpson, 2011). Many of these students also have additional disabilities in conjunction with an EBD identification, such as Learning Disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), among other psychiatric disorders (Henley, Ramsey, & Algozzine, 2009; Kauffman, 2005).
Because the identification of EBD examines behaviors that tend to be more subjective in nature than other disabilities and because these pervasive behaviors are manifested in a variety of forms, EBD is one of the most misidentified disability categories (Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Gallini, Simmons, & Feggins-Azziz, 2006). For students with EBD, the behavior(s) they exhibit contribute to learning difficulties in multiple academic and functional areas. This chapter provides in-depth information on the common characteristics and behavioral dimensions of this population. Additionally, the in-school performance and long-term outcomes of students with EBD are discussed.
Research has documented post-school outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities and learning disabilities continue to be poor. To improve student…
Research has documented post-school outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities and learning disabilities continue to be poor. To improve student outcomes for these populations, research has recommended implementing evidence-based practices and predictors in the classroom. The purpose of this chapter is to identify evidence-based practices and predictors targeted for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities in the area of secondary transition. We identify and briefly describe 12 evidence-based practices and 14 evidence-based predictors for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
While protests are important for communal and “in the moment” communication, we rely on writing when we want to think more deeply and express concerns and issues in our…
While protests are important for communal and “in the moment” communication, we rely on writing when we want to think more deeply and express concerns and issues in our lives and the lives of others. Writing teachers have a duty to instill in students the impact writing can have on influencing society and its issues. In this chapter, the authors argue for and demonstrate how active citizenship can be encouraged and taught through writing. Inspired by one of the author’s negative police interactions, the authors were compelled to push beyond the protest and begin instructing students in active citizenship through the rhetorical practice of writing. Authors were curious to know how a unit on advocacy writing would influence students’ understandings of using writing to solve social problems. This led to the research question examining how viable an advocacy unit for a first-year writing class is with influencing students’ perceptions of using their voices to advocate for self and for others. To study this question the authors conducted a qualitative classroom inquiry experiment where they collected a variety of data. They examined pre- and post-reflections on advocacy/active citizenship, self-advocacy writing samples, and community advocacy writing samples. Through analysis of these artifacts, this chapter describes how the sequence of writing assignments affected students’ perceptions of themselves as active citizens and the power they have to advocate for change through writing.
There is growing evidence that health behaviour change interventions are associated with mental health and wellbeing improvements. This paper aims to examine the effect of…
There is growing evidence that health behaviour change interventions are associated with mental health and wellbeing improvements. This paper aims to examine the effect of healthy lifestyle interventions on mental wellbeing.
Six databases (Medline, Evidence Based Medicine Cochrane Registered Controlled Trials, Evidence Based Medicine Full Text Reviews, British Nursing Index, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched from database commencement up to April 2013. A broad focus on lifestyle interventions and mental health and wellbeing outcomes was chosen. Papers were systematically extracted by title then abstract according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: any individual population (non-couple/family); any health behaviour change interventions; mental health and wellbeing outcomes; and a one-two level of evidence. Interventions aimed at workers were excluded, as were articles assessing cognitive functioning rather than mental health or wellbeing, or those using medications in interventions.
Two authors reviewed 95 full papers. In total, 29 papers met inclusion criteria, representing a range of interventions spanning physical activity, diet, alcohol intake, drug use and smoking. A range of measures were used. The majority (n=25) of studies demonstrated improvements on at least one indicator of mental health and wellbeing. Limitations include the broad range of outcome measures used, varied follow-up times and the lack of detail in reporting interventions.
Health behaviour change interventions targeting physical outcomes appear to have benefits to mental health and wellbeing spanning healthy populations and those with physical or mental health problems. Evidence is strongest for interventions targeting exercise and diet, particularly in combination and the actual lifestyle changes made and adherence appear to be important. However, it is not clear from this review which specific components are necessary or essential for improvements in mental health and wellbeing.
The Real Opportunities project set out to implement a number of the approaches identified through research that can assist transition to adulthood in nine local authority…
The Real Opportunities project set out to implement a number of the approaches identified through research that can assist transition to adulthood in nine local authority areas in Wales. Supported work experience was delivered by small job coaching teams in each area. The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of the work experience and employment teams by describing the placements provided, any change in the skills of young people, and the responses to the placements by employers, young people and their families.
Data were collected over 24 months by participating employment services. Questionnaires were administered to employers. Interviews were carried out with a sub-sample of young people (24) participating and a family member (25).
Over a 24-month period 297 young people received supported work experience. In total, 262 young people had an intellectual disability, 35 an autistic spectrum disorder. Up to three placements were delivered to each person, averaging five weeks per placement, with 405 placements in total. In total, 62 per cent of those with two placements had a different category of second work placement to their first. These numbers demonstrated that work experience in community placements is possible with support. Young people improved work skills significantly between first and second placements. Employers reported high satisfaction rates with the young person’s work in a range of key performance areas and company benefits from participation for other staff, company image and customer relations. Interviews with 24 young people and 25 of their family members reported satisfaction with support and placements. Six young people had paid work now, and 33 per cent said they would get a job at some future time. Families reported changes in young person’s outlook but their view of prospects of employment remained pessimistic due to the external environment.
Implications for future research are discussed.
Implications for transition are discussed.
The paper provides new insight into the impact of a large number of supported work experience placements.
The purpose of this paper is to document and explore the perceptual motivations for voluntary and continued affiliation with a fitness industry register by its affiliates…
The purpose of this paper is to document and explore the perceptual motivations for voluntary and continued affiliation with a fitness industry register by its affiliates (“members”) and non-affiliates (“non-members”). The formation of fitness industry registers to impart self-regulation is a common global occurrence. Their sustainment, however, is reliant on the motivations and voluntary support of industry members. Limited work has been done in this area.
This qualitative study uses the interpretive research paradigm, involving semi-structured interviews with 12 Auckland, New Zealand, fitness centre managers, industry associations, New Zealand Register of Exercise Professionals (Reps NZ) and Fitness New Zealand. Lenox’s (2006) participation-contingent benefits framework provides the necessary lens to explore the perceptual motivations behind participation/non-participation by fitness centres with an industry self-regulatory system (i.e. Reps NZ).
Whereas participation-contingent benefits are perceived minimal, and exceeded by affiliation limitations, there is institutional congruence for industry regulation to exist, thus creating institutional pressures that encourage affiliation and retention. Whereas affiliates choose to absorb the associated inconveniences of affiliation to “support” Reps NZ, non-affiliates question the register’s regulatory form, choosing to avoid the affiliation costs and limitations.
This study lends further support that institutional development is crucial for inclusive, substantive and sustainable self-regulatory systems. Regardless of the perceived low return on participation-contingent benefits, industry self-regulation can be sustained if there is a desire by industry members to maintain the institutional notion that the regulation needs to exist.