Search results

1 – 10 of over 16000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Daniel A. Newark and Markus C. Becker

The logic of consequences and the logic of appropriateness have long been central to understanding behavior in organizations. However, scholarly work on the logic of…

Abstract

The logic of consequences and the logic of appropriateness have long been central to understanding behavior in organizations. However, scholarly work on the logic of appropriateness has consisted mostly of conceptual clarification and ex post explanation of observed behavior. In an effort to facilitate the study of the logic of appropriateness through experimental methods, this paper introduces an experimental paradigm that allows for the manipulation of decision logic as an independent variable. Using this paradigm, 710 participants played four iconic behavioral games in which profitability and ethics are both at play and, sometimes, at odds: Prisoners’ Dilemma, Dictator Game, Ultimatum Game, and Trust Game. The manipulation generated behavioral data, as well as qualitative data about participants’ considerations while deciding according to each logic. The behavioral data show that, compared to participants employing a logic of consequences, participants employing a logic of appropriateness rejected more unfair offers in an Ultimatum Game and were more generous when reciprocating trusting behavior in a Trust Game. In all other cases, behavior between the two logics was not significantly different. An analysis of the qualitative data suggests that a logic of consequences increased participants’ focus on monetary concerns, whereas a logic of appropriateness increased participants’ focus on moral concerns. Taken together, these data provide new insights into when, how, and why the two logics result in behavioral and cognitive differences. The authors conclude by considering directions for future research that they see as particularly amenable to study using the experimental manipulation presented here.

Details

Carnegie goes to California: Advancing and Celebrating the Work of James G. March
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-979-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Tom Christensen and Per Lægreid

This paper is a theoretical review of the logic of appropriateness. First, it defines what is meant by a logic of appropriateness in the work of March and Olsen and then…

Abstract

This paper is a theoretical review of the logic of appropriateness. First, it defines what is meant by a logic of appropriateness in the work of March and Olsen and then discusses the dynamics of the logics of appropriateness and consequence. Second, it examines how the rules of appropriateness have developed and changed and discusses the advantages of using the logic of appropriateness. Third, it illustrates some applications of the logic of appropriateness by focusing on studies of public sector reforms and suggests how the logic of appropriateness might be used to understand the handling of COVID-19. Fourth, some of the critiques and elaborations of the logic of appropriateness are discussed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn and needs for future research indicated.

Details

Carnegie goes to California: Advancing and Celebrating the Work of James G. March
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-979-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Michael A. Gross and Laura K. Guerrero

The competence model of conflict communication suggests that individuals who use various conflict styles will be perceived differently in terms of appropriateness and…

Downloads
3959

Abstract

The competence model of conflict communication suggests that individuals who use various conflict styles will be perceived differently in terms of appropriateness and effectiveness. A simulated organizational decision‐making task involving 100 randomly‐paired dyads consisting of business students suggested that an integrative conflict style is generally perceived as the most appropriate (in terms of being both a polite, prosocial strategy and an adaptive, situationally appropriate strategy) and most effective style. The dominating style tended to be perceived as inappropriate when used by others, but some participants judged themselves as more effective when they used dominating tactics along with integrating tactics. The obliging style was generally perceived as neutral, although some participants perceived themselves to be less effective and relationally appropriate when they employed obliging tactics. The avoiding style was generally perceived as ineffective and inappropriate. Finally, compromising was perceived as a relatively neutral style, although some participants judged their partners to be more effective and relationally appropriate if they compromised. Overall, these results and others provide general support for the competence model's predictions, while also suggesting some modifications and directions for future research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Carl R. Borgia and Randolph S. Coyner

A survey of the chief academic officers at comprehensive colleges and universities in the United States reveals a move toward more rational budgeting systems in higher…

Downloads
112

Abstract

A survey of the chief academic officers at comprehensive colleges and universities in the United States reveals a move toward more rational budgeting systems in higher education over the last 20 years. Systems with a traditional approach to budgeting are still one of the major systems, but they no longer dominate. Three other major systems found in higher education are rational systems: planning, programming, and budgeting systems (PPBS); combination PPBS and zero-base systems; and combination PPBS, zero-base, and performance systems. These three systems are more prevalent, appropriate and satisfactory than traditional systems.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Eugene Y. J. Tee, Yin Lu Ng and Neil Paulsen

Displaying appropriate emotions enhances followers’ perceptions toward a leader. The present study examined the moderating effect of leader group-prototypicality on the…

Abstract

Displaying appropriate emotions enhances followers’ perceptions toward a leader. The present study examined the moderating effect of leader group-prototypicality on the relationship between leader’s emotion appropriateness and followers’ perceptions toward the leader (i.e., self-sacrifice intentions and effectiveness). Based on a set of 366 Malaysian students’ experimental survey responses, leader group-prototypicality emerged as a significant moderator. Specifically, the effect of leader’s emotion appropriateness was stronger for group-prototypical leaders than non-group-prototypical leaders. Hence, to enhance their perceived effectiveness, leaders should portray appropriate emotions and ensure that they are viewed as representative by their followers.

Details

Emotions and the Organizational Fabric
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-939-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Emmanuel Lazega

This paper provides an analytical theory of appropriateness judgments that introduces structural dimensions in the study of social rationality of organization members…

Abstract

This paper provides an analytical theory of appropriateness judgments that introduces structural dimensions in the study of social rationality of organization members. This approach helps explore the coevolution of members’ relative position in structure and normative choices in their organization. Illustration of this approach is based on the study of controversial judicial decisions and dynamics of advice networks in a courthouse where lay judges have to choose between punitive and nonpunitive awards in cases of unfair competition in business. In this case, coevolution is facilitated by an endogenous process of centralization–decentralization–recentralization of advice networks over time, and by use of a procedural “weak legal culture” that helps align and homogenize conflicting normative choices among organization members. It is suggested that this approach to social rationality helps revisit our understanding of social processes, in this case collective learning and secondary socialization in organizations and flexible labor markets.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Micael Dahlén, Anton Granlund and Mikael Grenros

The purpose of this paper is to test the consumer‐perceived value of non‐traditional media, and the moderating effects of brand reputation, appropriateness and expense.

Downloads
11958

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the consumer‐perceived value of non‐traditional media, and the moderating effects of brand reputation, appropriateness and expense.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of an experimental study of six (real) campaigns, manipulating media type and brand reputation (with appropriateness and expense measured within subjects).

Findings

Non‐traditional media enhance consumer‐perceived value. The effects are greater for low‐ than for high‐reputation brands. High‐reputation brands are more sensitive to the appropriateness and expense of the marketing. Consumer‐perceived value leads to higher purchase and word‐of‐mouth intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis of the mediating effects of consumer‐perceived value is exploratory and requires follow‐up. Being a first test of the effects of non‐traditional media, no discrimination was made between different types. This requires further attention.

Practical implications

The paper shows that non‐traditional media enhance the consumer‐perceived value of marketing, and suggests that consumer‐perceived value is important in generating purchase and word‐of‐mouth intentions. The approach also gives advice with respect to brand reputation, budget (expense) and appropriateness of marketing.

Originality/value

The paper is a first academic test of non‐traditional media/guerrilla marketing; it argues that marketing must generate consumer‐perceived value in order to be successful and finds support for this; and employs previously neglected (but highly current) variables such as appropriateness and expense. The paper is valuable in its high action‐orientation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Timothy G. Hawkins, Michael J. Gravier and C. Michael Wittmann

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a sourcing professional arrives at a decision to use an electronic reverse auction (eRA) to source a particular requirement by…

Downloads
2026

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a sourcing professional arrives at a decision to use an electronic reverse auction (eRA) to source a particular requirement by examining eRA appropriateness.

Design/methodology/approach

Past eRA research findings are synthesized into a summary table. From a comprehensive review of the literature, theories of technology adoption, social influence, referent‐dependence theory, and planned behaviour are discussed and synthesized into a model that explains the antecedents of eRA appropriateness. A case study methodology using structured interviews resulted in a refined model that sheds light on some of the controversial findings regarding electronic reverse auction appropriateness.

Findings

Expected savings, buyer confidence, and prior eRA sourcing satisfaction are identified as new constructs that help explain the decision to source via eRAs. Additionally, perceived eRA appropriateness is proposed as a new construct that mediates the influence of external, strategy factors on the decision to source via eRAs.

Research limitations/implications

Recent literature suggests that the benefits of reverse auctions are overstated and reverse auctions constitute a fundamentally coercive use of buyer power. Reconciling the conflicting supplier perceptions of reverse auctions as use of coercive power with buyer perceptions of cost savings requires an explanation for the factors that lead to the decision to source via eRAs.

Practical implications

The modern competitive supply chain environment entices businesses to explore all avenues for cost savings. Explaining the drivers of reverse auction use illuminates the advantages and pitfalls of reverse auctions as a strategic sourcing venue.

Originality/value

From an extensive review of the eRA literature and eight case studies, the authors propose a model that integrates and extends previous eRA research. Key insights from the model are the mediating effect of perceived eRA appropriateness and the integration of individual level variables with the strategic decision to source via eRA. Additionally, a table is provided summarizing the findings from relevant eRA research that reveals key insights into the phenomenon.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Grégoire Croidieu and Philippe Monin

We define diffusion as the spread of something within a social system. Diffusion is the most general and abstract term, and it embraces such processes as contagion…

Abstract

We define diffusion as the spread of something within a social system. Diffusion is the most general and abstract term, and it embraces such processes as contagion, mimicry, social learning, organized dissemination, etc. (Strang & Soule, 1998). While the home territory of diffusion is innovation (see Rogers, 2003 for an authoritative review), more recent macro-diffusion research has developed, based on social movement and institutionalization arguments (Ansari, Fiss, & Zajac, 2010; Wejnert, 2002).

Details

Institutions and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-240-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Kalyan Sengupta and Atish Chattopadhyay

The study is designed to explore the importance of appropriate marketing strategies for sustainability of small firms in India, a developing economy.

Downloads
5707

Abstract

Purpose

The study is designed to explore the importance of appropriate marketing strategies for sustainability of small firms in India, a developing economy.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework based on accepted definition of marketing strategy was developed which could notionally evaluate the appropriateness of marketing strategies and its impact on the market position of the firms. The framework was tested on a set of small scale bakery firms operating in the city of Kolkata. The marketing mix of the firms was studied through case study method. A customer survey was conducted to measure the firms’ market offerings with respect to their target segment. For this, data were collected from 546 consumers and analyzed using multivariate techniques.

Findings

It was observed that the firms, which could align their market offerings with respect to the target segment, achieved higher performance.

Research limitations/implications

The framework used was easy and simple to comprehend. The only two input components required were the marketing mix elements and a corresponding survey to understand customer perceptions. The interpretation of appropriateness, which is reactive in nature, is important, particularly for small firms where marketing is mostly informal, unplanned, relies on intuition and differs from that of large companies. The marketing mix elements were composed through qualitative observations and interviews only. Further research may be undertaken to refine the same in future.

Originality/value

The current research addresses the issue of interpreting the appropriateness of marketing strategy adopted by a set of small firms.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 16000