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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Zhi-Hua Hu, Chen Wei and Xiao-Kun Yu

The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of a routing problem with uncertain try-on service time (VRPUS) for apparel distribution, and to devise solution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of a routing problem with uncertain try-on service time (VRPUS) for apparel distribution, and to devise solution strategies coping with the uncertainty by an evolutionary algorithm. VRPUS belongs to the category of practical routing models integrated with uncertain service times. However, in the background of apparel distribution, it has distinct features. The try-on service will improve the customer satisfaction by providing experiences to customers; the return cost is saved; the customer loyalty is improved for experiencing face-to-face try-on services. However, the uncertainty of try-on service time makes the apparel distribution process uncertain and incurs additional risk management cost, such that the logistics companies should optimally make decisions on the choice of the service and the service processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper devised a mixed-integer programming (MIP) model for the base vehicle routing problem (VRP) and then it is extended to support the solution strategies for uncertain try-on times. A try-on time estimation parameter and a time reservation parameter are used to cope with the uncertain try-on time, and the try-on rejection strategy is applied when the uncertain try-on time is realized at customer and no surplus time can be used for try-on service besides distributing to remainder customers. Due to the computational complexity of VRPUS, an evolutionary algorithm is designed for solving it. These parameters and strategy options are designed for the operational decisions by logistics companies. Finally, a decision support system (DSS) is designed.

Findings

Five experimental scenarios are performed to reveal the impacts of parameters and solution strategies coping with uncertain try-on time on the distribution cost, return cost, and the try-on service failure. The tuning methods are designed to assist the decisions by logistics companies.

Originality/value

A new routing problem is addressed for apparel distribution in fashion industry especially in the context of booming apparel e-commerce, which is a VRP with uncertain try-on service time for apparel distribution; three strategies are developed to cope with the try-on time uncertainty. The proposed method is also a theoretical base for designing a practical DSS for logistics companies to provide try-on service to customers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Simone Guercini

In the 1990s the trend of textile and apparel manufacturing in Italy differed considerably from other European countries with high labour costs. The examination of the…

Abstract

In the 1990s the trend of textile and apparel manufacturing in Italy differed considerably from other European countries with high labour costs. The examination of the peculiar factors generating the Italian specificity represents the first aims of this paper, and will be discussed employing statistical sources concerning market performance, industrial organization and retail structure. A second aim, of no less central importance, is the evaluation of the strategic behaviour adopted by Italian textile and apparel firms in front of competitive change on international market. Results emerging from a secondary research are presented. The analysis proposed focuses mainly on strategic market positioning and integration between manufacturing firms of the textile‐apparel pipeline and clothing retail.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Marsha A. Dickson and Li Zhang

This study investigated how Chinese retailers perceive their foreign brand apparel suppliers and explored the use of power theory for explaining these relationships. A…

Abstract

This study investigated how Chinese retailers perceive their foreign brand apparel suppliers and explored the use of power theory for explaining these relationships. A survey of 150 apparel retailers operating in Beijing, China provided data for the study. Referent power positively influenced retailers' attitudes toward and non‐economic satisfaction with their suppliers. Greater referent power also reduced channel conflict and enhanced economic satisfaction with business performance. The importance of this source of power seems to be linked with the concept of guanxi in China, where respectful relationships are valued. Coercive threats to withhold necessary merchandise, service, or contracts increased channel conflict. Surprisingly, greater channel conflict was associated with increased economic satisfaction with business performance. This relationship is contemplated from a cultural perspective and recommendations are made to foreign brand apparel manufacturers wishing to access China's retail market.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Takuya Urakami and Xueying Wu

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the own brand strategies undertaken by Japanese apparel manufacturers, and illuminate the characteristics of those apparel

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the own brand strategies undertaken by Japanese apparel manufacturers, and illuminate the characteristics of those apparel manufacturers who adopt the SPA business model.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was sent to 4,417 apparel manufacturers in Japan of which a total of 1,211 were deemed usable (response rate of 27.47 percent). Logit regression analysis was then employed to identify factors affecting the own brand strategies adopted by Japanese apparel manufacturers.

Findings

The main findings are as follows: apparel manufacturers having access to external designers, and who collect information relating to consumer needs for production planning tend to have their own brands; apparel manufacturers located in Tokyo have added benefits associated with launching their own brands than those located in other cities; the size of the company behind the brand development is insignificant; and therefore, SME apparel manufacturers have equal opportunities in developing their own brands, which could flourish in the future.

Research limitations/implications

The present study is limited in that it focuses solely on exogenous factors. Strategic decision-making processes, typical of the distribution structures of apparel industries, influence the apparel relationship between retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers. Thus, the distribution structure and the relationships require further investigation studies.

Originality/value

Because of a lack of published data, no empirical studies investigating the effectiveness of own brand strategies developed by Japanese apparel manufacturers currently exist. The present study aims to address this by conducting questionnaire surveys with all Japanese apparel manufacturers and then using logit regression analysis, identify the primary factors influencing own brand strategy. This study clarifies the situation regarding the survival of SMEs in the apparel market, considering only those apparel manufacturers who intend to launch their own brands.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2010

Takuya Urakami and Xueying Wu

The purpose of this paper is to highlight two important strategies (private label strategy and specialty store strategy) of the Japanese wholesale apparel market and then…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight two important strategies (private label strategy and specialty store strategy) of the Japanese wholesale apparel market and then to clarify the characteristics of those apparel wholesalers who own or intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was carried out on 3,008 apparel wholesalers in Japan and probit regression analyses were applied to identify what types of apparel wholesalers already own or whether they intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Findings

The main findings are as follows: large‐scale apparel wholesalers tend to own specialty private label stores but these wholesalers experience a worse financial outcome; apparel wholesalers with brand strength tend to possess their own specialty stores; and apparel wholesalers, who do not currently own specialty stores, plan to strengthen their brands in order to take advantage of apparel distribution channels.

Originality/value

Because of a lack of published data, no empirical studies have investigated the effectiveness of private label or specialty store strategies developed by Japanese apparel wholesalers. The present study has sought to address this problem by conducting questionnaire surveys with all Japanese apparel wholesalers and has, therefore, been able to clarify the situation regarding survival in the apparel market by considering those apparel wholesalers that already own or intend to establish specialty private label stores.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Florence Olu Ogunrin and Anthony U Inegbenebor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the distribution channels used by a Nigerian sample of apparel producers and investigate the association between the channels in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the distribution channels used by a Nigerian sample of apparel producers and investigate the association between the channels in use and the sample’s export involvement. In this era of sophisticated computer- and internet-mediated marketing practices, the larger proportion of entrepreneurs in developing economies still deploy largely informal marketing practices. Countries indeed have adopted the marketing revolution to varying degrees, consistent with prevailing level of development.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured interview schedule was used in collecting data from 111 apparel entrepreneurs.

Findings

Most of the respondents were domestic market-focused haute couture producers or low-volume producers of ready-to-wear (r-t-w) clothing who supply institutions or boutiques, using direct channels. Only a few export, mainly through ethnic-commercial networks involving overseas-based family/friends.

Practical implications

For now, current distribution channels seem adequate for the personal and business goals of these entrepreneurs. However, large-volume clothing exporting through formal global distribution channels is what drives industrialization and development. These apparel entrepreneurs therefore require institutional assistance to link up with formal global marketing channels. It is only then that the industry would serve similar development roles as witnessed in other emerging economies which have climbed the development ladder through export of labour-intensive manufactures like clothing.

Originality/value

The study confirmed earlier observations about apparel exporting in Nigeria, such as prevalent use of informal channels, and also draws attention to less-known details, including the existence of fledgling local trade intermediaries, “disappointed exporters” and an emerging group (yet miniscule) of exporters who utilize more formalized channels.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

Ning Cao, Zhiming Zhang, Kin Man To and Keng Po Ng

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the empirical issues of the implementation of coordination for textile‐apparel supply chains.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the empirical issues of the implementation of coordination for textile‐apparel supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing case study, the paper examines three different types of coordination practice in three different structures of textile‐apparel supply chains: vertical integration chain, efficiency oriented chain and 3P‐hub chain. The coordinators are three leading Hong Kong based international textiles and apparel companies in these cases. The case sources are published articles, company web sites and some open seminars offered by the case companies.

Findings

In textile and apparel industries, brand owners generally coordinate the supply chain. There are also other coordination practices in industries. Through the research observations and analyses in the cases it is found that the integrated company, powerful garment manufacturer and trade agent play the role of coordinators in vertical integration chain, efficiency oriented chain and 3P‐hub chain, respectively. No matter what type of coordination practice, information sharing and product flow coordination should be comprehensive. Coordinators are the information centers of the whole supply chain. They should have power to manage the supply chain. They should actively integrate the whole chain for maximum total profitability.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is just an overview of coordination practice in textile‐apparel supply chains. The case sources are published articles, company web sites and some open seminars made by the case companies. The methodology should be more systematic.

Originality/value

Coordination in textile‐apparel supply chains is still an unresolved question both from the theoretic and practical points of view. This paper fills in some of the gaps.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Joy M. Kozar and Kim Y. Hiller Connell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between social and environmental responsibility knowledge, attitudes, and purchasing behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between social and environmental responsibility knowledge, attitudes, and purchasing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of, and attitudes towards, issues of social responsibility, including social and environmental aspects related to the production and distribution of apparel and textile goods. Information regarding engagement in socially and environmentally responsible apparel‐purchasing behavior was also collected. Participants included students enrolled at a four‐year institution located in the Midwestern USA.

Findings

Participants indicated being more knowledgeable about apparel environmental issues as compared to apparel social issues. Overall, participants exhibited low involvement in socially and environmentally responsible apparel‐purchasing behavior. However, both knowledge and attitudes of social and environmental issues were significant predictors of socially and environmentally responsible purchasing behavior.

Practical implications

Given the competition among apparel companies operating in the marketplace, this study lends valuable insight for firms in implementing strategic social and environmental practices and policies. The implications of this study also suggest that firms within the industry may need to respond to the barriers perceived by consumers in engaging in sustainable apparel‐purchasing behavior.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are useful in understanding the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Previous research on this topic has been inconclusive. A thorough examination of this topic is important, as noted by previous scholars, consumers have the ability to effect change in the marketplace through their purchasing behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Kim Y. Hiller Connell and Joy M. Kozar

The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in undergraduate student knowledge of issues of sustainability relevant to the apparel and textiles industry. Assessment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in undergraduate student knowledge of issues of sustainability relevant to the apparel and textiles industry. Assessment occurred prior to and upon completion of a course that addressed topics specific to the global production and distribution of apparel and textile goods. The study also examined modifications in students' reported apparel purchasing behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants included those in their third, fourth or fifth year of undergraduate education in the apparel and textile discipline at a higher education institution located in the Midwestern USA. All participants were enrolled in a course focused on globalization and the apparel and textile industry. Measures used to assess students' knowledge of social and environmental sustainability issues related to the industry and their apparel purchasing behavior were included in the research instrument.

Findings

Pre and post comparisons revealed significant changes in students' knowledge of social and environmental issues relevant to the apparel and textile industry. However, the study found no significant adjustments in apparel purchasing behavior. Further, a post hoc analysis revealed no significant relationship between students' knowledge and their reported purchasing behavior.

Originality/value

Limited resources exist which examine methods for educating apparel and textile students about sustainability issues, with even less research documented on assessing the effectiveness of these methods. The paper analyzes the contributions sustainability‐focused curriculum can make in modifying the level of knowledge and purchasing behavior of students and recommends further strategies to yield possibly even greater results.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2017

Germano Adolfo Gehrke, Hoyêdo Nunes Lins and José Alonso Borba

This study traces the internationalization strategy of Hering, a Brazilian-based apparel company active in manufacturing and retail.

Abstract

Purpose

This study traces the internationalization strategy of Hering, a Brazilian-based apparel company active in manufacturing and retail.

Methodology/approach

The data set and analysis is presented in chronological order and decisions taken by the company are viewed based on internationalization theories. It presents two main internationalization frameworks, the production network and the value chain models.

Findings

While the company started the internationalization process in the 1960s and reached a consistent global presence in distinct markets, it has now retracted from main markets in Europe and North America and is focused on its own distribution network in South America. Hering has changed its strategy of a global production network player into a leader in the retail value chain model with regional distribution. This strategy change has been possible by valuing brand management and distribution instead of manufacturing capacity.

Originality/value

BRIC countries are known for exporting commodities but have poor performance in selling its own branded consumer goods abroad. This study provides such a rare case of a Brazilian consumer good company operating abroad.

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

Keywords

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