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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Angela da Rocha and Luis Antonio Dib

Investigates the entry of Wal‐Mart in Brazil, and subsequent moves of established retailers and new entrants with data taken from secondary sources and interviews with…

Abstract

Investigates the entry of Wal‐Mart in Brazil, and subsequent moves of established retailers and new entrants with data taken from secondary sources and interviews with executives. First, internationalization of Wal‐Mart and its entry are discussed, which caused an impact on Brazilian retailing by accelerating the concentration, automation and modernization of the industry. Competitive reactions were classified in four categories: neutralizing competitors actions, establishing competitive advantage, redefining markets, and changing ownership. It is argued that Wal‐Mart’s experience in Brazil could be an interesting source of learning for foreign retailers desirous of entering the Brazilian market as well as for local companies that need to remain competitive to survive.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Lorenzo Ardito, Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli, Umberto Panniello and Achille Claudio Garavelli

The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive picture of the innovative efforts undertaken over time to develop the digital technologies for managing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive picture of the innovative efforts undertaken over time to develop the digital technologies for managing the interface between supply chain management and marketing processes and the role they play in sustaining supply chain management-marketing (SCM-M) integration from an information processing point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Patent analysis and actual examples are used to carry out this study. In detail, first, the authors identify the subset of enabling technologies pertaining to the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) that can be considered the most relevant for effective SCM-M integration (i.e. Industrial Internet of Things, Cloud computing, Big Data analytics and customer profiling, Cyber security). Second, the authors carry out a patent analysis aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the patenting activity trends characterizing the set of digital technologies under investigation, hence highlighting their innovation dynamics and applications.

Findings

This research provides insightful information about which digital technologies may enable the SCM-M integration. Specifically, the authors highlight the role those solutions play in terms of information acquisition, storage and elaboration for SCM-M integration by relying on illustrative actual examples. Moreover, the authors present the organisations more involved in the development of digital technologies for SCM-M integration over time and offer an examination of their technological impact in terms of influence on subsequent technological developments.

Originality/value

So far, much has been said about why marketing and supply chain management functions should be integrated. However, a clear picture of the digital technologies that might be adopted to achieve this objective has yet to be revealed. Thus, the paper contributes to the literature on SCM-M integration and Industry 4.0 by highlighting the enabling technologies for the Industry 4.0 that may particularly serve for managing the SCM-M interface from an information processing perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1980

Gerri G. Lawrence

Starting at home base — The Houston Online User Group sponsored an October meeting: The Federal Government: Information On‐line. Topics covered included NIH‐EPA, NLM, NTIS…

Abstract

Starting at home base — The Houston Online User Group sponsored an October meeting: The Federal Government: Information On‐line. Topics covered included NIH‐EPA, NLM, NTIS and ASI/CIS … The first issue of the 1980–1981 Oregon Online User Group (OOUG) Newsletter provided a summary of past events, goals and objectives, and future plans. Other items included business news, upcoming national meetings, points of interests from other information organizations, and continuing education courses …. MIDLNET (Midwest Region Library Network announced the appointment of Dr. James E. Skipper as Executive Director, effective October 1, 1980 …. Bay Area User Group reports their October meeting held at Stanford's Math‐Computer Science Library with a presentation of their computer services program …. A tour of INFO MART treated the Santa Barbara Group …. Southern California's September meeting was ‘Suggestions for Improvement of Online Systems and Databases’ — a synopsis of the results will be distributed via the National Online Circuit …. But the biggest news out of sunny California is that the members of CLASS are able to communicate with each other via On Tyme. Various user groups have had training sessions on this electronic mail service which promises savings in cost, manpower, and time …. CLASS has also offered workshops on INSPEC, RLIN, BRS, MARC, Systems Refreshers, and Laboratory Animal Data Bank …. The North Carolina Online Users Group held a User Education/User Evaluation program which included a slide show ‘Computerized Search Services’ as used at the Burroughs Wellcome Company. Their recent newsletter provided a summary of their major spring workshop on current affairs databases … NCOLUG also sent a copy of their member directory — it's divided into three sections: List of members, organizations represented in NCOLUG, and a Database Index … MIDBUG (Michigan Database Users Group) sponsored BIOSIS (beginning and advanced) and Disclosure Seminars and co‐sponsored a Non‐Bibliographic Data Base Conference with the Western Michigan Chapter S.L.A. and the Upjohn Company …. The Columbus Area Online Users Group presented an ISI Databases Workshop instruction for online retrieval of Science and Social Science Citation Indexes …. Western Michigan University also presented an ISI Workshop in October …. San Antonio Area Online Users Group hosted Data Courier, Inc. and their newly revised Online Training Session …. Kansas City Online User Group has been active with a hands‐on workshop with The Source; reports have it that all attending found it a rewarding workshop.

Details

Online Review, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

David Norman Smith

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a…

Abstract

Purpose

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a life of its own. In this paper, I examine the worldwide diffusion and sociocultural history of this paradigmatic expression. The intent is to explore the ways in which ideas of time and money appear in sedimented form in popular sayings.

Methodology/approach

My approach is sociological in orientation and multidisciplinary in method. Drawing upon the works of Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci, Wolfgang Mieder, and Dean Wolfe Manders, I explore the global spread of Ben Franklin’s famed adage in three ways: (1) via evidence from the field of “paremiology” – that is, the study of proverbs; (2) via online searches for the phrase “Time is Money” in 30-plus languages; and (3) via evidence from sociological and historical research.

Findings

The conviction that “Time is Money” has won global assent on an ever-expanding basis for more than 250 years now. In recent years, this phrase has reverberated to the far corners of the world in literally dozens of languages – above all, in the languages of Eastern Europe and East Asia.

Originality/value

Methodologically, this study unites several different ways of exploring the globalization of the capitalist spirit. The main substantive implication is that, as capitalism goes global, so too does the capitalist spirit. Evidence from popular sayings gives us a new foothold for insight into questions of this kind.

Details

Globalization, Critique and Social Theory: Diagnoses and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-247-4

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2009

Mary Nell Trautner

Who is ultimately responsible for the harms that befall us? Corporations who make dangerous products, or the consumers who use them? The answer to this question has a…

Abstract

Who is ultimately responsible for the harms that befall us? Corporations who make dangerous products, or the consumers who use them? The answer to this question has a profound impact on how personal injury lawyers screen products liability cases. In this chapter, I analyze results from an experimental vignette study in which 83 lawyers were asked to evaluate a hypothetical products liability case. Half of the lawyers practice in states considered to be difficult jurisdictions for the practice of personal injury law due to tort reform and conservative political climates (Texas and Colorado), while the other half work in states that have been relatively unaffected by tort reform and are considered to be more “plaintiff friendly” (Pennsylvania and Massachusetts). While lawyers in reform states and non-reform states were equally likely to accept the hypothetical case with which they were presented, they approached the case in different ways, used different theories, and made different arguments in order to justify their acceptance of the case. Lawyers in states with tort reform were most likely to accept the case when they focused on the issue of corporate social responsibility – that is, what the defendant did wrong, how they violated the rules, and how they could have prevented the injury in question. Lawyers in non-reform states, however, were most likely to accept the case when they believed that jurors would feel sorry for the injured child and not find their client at fault for the injury.

Details

Access to Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-243-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Kevin P. Coyne

Forbes magazine had dubbed Carmike Cinemas “the Wal‐Mart of theater chains.” Founded in 1982, the Columbus GA‐based chain of 1,400 screens pursues a strategy strikingly…

Abstract

Forbes magazine had dubbed Carmike Cinemas “the Wal‐Mart of theater chains.” Founded in 1982, the Columbus GA‐based chain of 1,400 screens pursues a strategy strikingly similar to that of Wal‐Mart Stores, Inc. The company buys or builds theaters in small to mid‐sized cities (populations of 200,000 or less) where purchase prices are low and competition is scarce. This unusual approach to the movie retailing business has led to phenomenal growth and strong profitability at a time when other chains are scrambling to sell off theaters and repay debts.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1996

David Spener

As has been widely recognized in the literature, the post‐war economic boom which drew to a close by the early 1970s has been followed by an intense period of industrial…

Abstract

As has been widely recognized in the literature, the post‐war economic boom which drew to a close by the early 1970s has been followed by an intense period of industrial restructuring characterized by marked instability in all three major spheres of economic activity: production, distribution, and finance. This process has taken place both at the global level and at the level of national economies (Cardenas, 1990). It reflects a profound change in the mode of capitalist accumulation. Prior to the current round of restructuring, accumulation was taken to be principally the inward‐oriented task of each nation's own economy. Now, it seems that successful capital accumulation (i.e. development) depends most upon a nation's competitive integration into the world market for goods and services (Garrido, 1995). The present mode of accumulation implies an opening of national economies to international trade in commodities and capital, both among the advanced industrial nations and between the industrialized and the newly‐industrializing countries. This has generated a heightened degree of competition among countries and among firms, given that the easy movement of capital, goods, and services has allowed for real competition to emerge among dispersed places around the globe based upon their comparative financial and productive advantages.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Tobias Coutinho Parente and Cláudio Antonio Pinheiro Machado Filho

Literature has suggested that the agenda of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an extension of corporate governance (CG) and would be under the responsibility of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature has suggested that the agenda of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an extension of corporate governance (CG) and would be under the responsibility of the board of directors. In this sense, the authors seek to understand the perception of board members on the CSR issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory survey with 128 Brazilian board members was carried out. The authors looked at their perception about the incorporation of CSR in business agendas and on what they consider when deciding on issues related to CSR.

Findings

The results show that board members understand the organization more as an entity that has a social role to play than something that simply acts pragmatically. This position is reflected in their decision-making processes rather than in the values and beliefs of the controllers’ majority shareholders, which consider what creates long-term value for organizations. The directors seek to create and maintain value for organizations for them to operate sustainably.

Practical implications

This research contributes to structuring boards. When choosing board members, having only technical requirements is no longer sufficient; their psychological profile and history also need to be taken into account. It also contributes to the drafting of CSR policies by showing what board members think of CSR and how they make decisions.

Originality/value

This study focuses on understanding how the director as an individual observes CSR. Much has been studied about CG, CSR and board members; however, little is known regarding the opinion of board members with regard to CSR. The authors are suggesting an approach to the singularities of directors as another direction in governance research.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Can Saygin and Balaji Natarajan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) deployment at an airport baggage‐handling system (BHS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) deployment at an airport baggage‐handling system (BHS).

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of number of RFID readers at different power levels with varying conveyor (i.e. baggage‐handling conveyors) speeds on timely delivery of baggage is studied via simulation. The layout of the BHS at the Hong Kong International Airport and data pertinent to its RFID deployment in 2005 are used to build the simulation model. The RFID read logic is based on the equations defined as a function of the number of tags and the time the tags spend in the interrogation zone for each reader in order to capture possible read‐rate issues realistically.

Findings

The identification capability of the BHS studied in this paper is a result of its combined ability to identify tags via RFID technology on straight and circulating conveyors, as well as at the manual recovery station for unidentified bags on circulating conveyors. Overall, timely delivery of bags to gates, as a performance metric, increases as the identification capability is improved. The controllable factors that affect the identification capability are the conveyor speed, which determines the time a tag stays in the interrogation zone; the reader antenna power level, which determines the size of the interrogation zone; and the number of reader antennas in the system that increases the likelihood of not missing tags. This paper shows that “the higher the number of reader antennas and the higher the power level on them, the better” approach is not correct.

Originality/value

Unlike typical simulation studies related to RFID deployment where read‐rate issues are considered to be non‐existent, this paper captures read rate in a realistic manner in the simulation model by incorporating the effect of number of RFID tags in the interrogation zone and time that RFID tags spend in the interrogation zone due to baggage conveyor speed. Such a simulation approach can be used as a system design tool in order to investigate the impact of RFID‐specific parameters on system‐level performance.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2018

Stewart Miller, Jayanth Jayaram and Kefeng Xu

The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors of obtaining global certification (ISO 9000) in an emerging market by focusing on ownership structure and total quality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors of obtaining global certification (ISO 9000) in an emerging market by focusing on ownership structure and total quality management (TQM) commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adapts the theory of planned behavior to explain organizations that obtain global certification in an emerging market (China). Using 269 service firms at different stages of ISO 9000 certification (a proxy for goal-directed behavior/excellence by organizations), the study examines the influence of ownership structures (a proxy for perceived behavioral control) and TQM commitment (a proxy for attitude toward a behavior), using a probit model.

Findings

The results showed that ownership structures that were state-owned enterprises, privately owned enterprises and township-village enterprises (TVEs) had a lower probability of obtaining global certification. However, TQM commitment moderates the relationship between ownership structure and obtaining ISO 9000 certification for POEs and TVEs. The study found stronger results for a subsample of organizations that intended to obtain ISO 9000 certification. Among organizations without ISO 9000 certification, we examined organizations that began the learning process for ISO 9000 and those that had not, and found differences based on competitive pressures, ownership structures, and the moderating effect of TQM commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may consider manufacturing organizations and other countries to further validate the findings of our study.

Practical implications

Creating strong TQM commitment can be an effective means for POEs and TVEs to obtain ISO 9000 certification.

Originality/value

This study is the first to adapt the theory of planned behavior for an organization-level analysis of ISO 9000 certification, especially in the service operations setting. The study found that TQM commitment selectively moderates ownership structures in explaining the probability that an organization obtained ISO 9000 certification.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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