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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Diego Souza Silva, Antonio Ghezzi, Rafael Barbosa de Aguiar, Marcelo Nogueira Cortimiglia and Carla Schwengber ten Caten

Startups have attracted increased attention over the past years. While entrepreneurs develop startups to capture new business opportunities, also large companies are…

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3230

Abstract

Purpose

Startups have attracted increased attention over the past years. While entrepreneurs develop startups to capture new business opportunities, also large companies are turning to these fast-growing organizations in efforts to become more agile. However, managing business model innovation and validation is challenging. A number of methodologies, like the Lean Startup (LS), emerged to reduce uncertainties concerning innovation-based projects, and to contribute to business model validation. Despite its popularity, the literature on the LS and its key underpinnings (Agile Methodologies and Customer Development) is sparse, lacking an integrated and structured analysis of their impacts and potentialities. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review on the topic fully analyzing a final set of 71 papers.

Findings

There is a turning point in the research stream’s maturity with publications in conferences and major journals, with the predominance of empirical investigations in the European region. Articles on the topic are on the rise in several technology fields. However, the literature on the subject falls short on providing guidance to assist practitioners and scholars on the adoption and investigation of these methodologies.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidance for practice by presenting a staircase roadmap for the LS implementation drawing from the final set of papers reviewed.

Originality/value

The study categorizes the current literature through a concept map, and offers a structured research agenda beyond the categories from the thematic analysis.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Antonio Ghezzi

This study aims to discuss how business model innovation from both incumbents and startups growingly may stem from past products, services, and approaches reinvented. This…

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1238

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss how business model innovation from both incumbents and startups growingly may stem from past products, services, and approaches reinvented. This results in what is labeled the “Reinventing the Wheel (RTW)” innovation paradigm, where the future is seen through the lenses of the past.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on historical analysis of common business model innovation patterns found in a longitudinal sample of both incumbent companies and startups in the time frame 2008-2016.

Findings

The RTW paradigm unlocks business model innovation through: the reinvention of past resources and competencies; the use of digital technologies; and the centrality given to customer experience and customer journey. The resulting RTW cycle is made of five steps to follow in the attempt to make the most out of this paradigm: survey, learn, disclose, exploit, and reinvent.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs and managers are presented with the key elements, steps, and implications of an emerging business model innovation paradigm to possibly apply in their incumbent or startup context.

Originality/value

This study presents an original approach to look at business model innovation, in a way that is complementary to alternative practices like the blue ocean strategy, big-bang disruption, and lean startup.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2019

Raffaello Balocco, Angelo Cavallo, Antonio Ghezzi and Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent

Business model change (BMC) is a process new ventures are frequently involved in, especially in dynamic environments like the digital industry: copying with it is a key…

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2263

Abstract

Purpose

Business model change (BMC) is a process new ventures are frequently involved in, especially in dynamic environments like the digital industry: copying with it is a key issue for entrepreneurs attempting to shorten the transition between current and new business models (BMs) and avoid losses in terms of revenue, image and customer retention, while acquiring experience and validated learning in the process. The purpose of this paper is to propose a lean framework to support digital new ventures in the BMC process.

Design/methodology/approach

The study builds its contribution on two pillars: a review on BM and the lean thinking theories, and a multiple case study on three digital new ventures which underwent BMC.

Findings

The study shows how BMC in a digital context can beneficially follow lean principles, and how these principles can be integrated in an original lean framework to experiment on, validate and subsequently change a BM.

Originality/value

The authors provide the “single minute exchange of die” for BMC framework that extends and complements lean startup approaches to further relate lean thinking and BMC, thus operationalizing the process of BM experimenting and validation that enables change.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 August 2021

Antonio Ghezzi, Angelo Cavallo, Silvia Sanasi and Andrea Rangone

This study aims at exploring how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can implement a more open and co-creational business model by actively collaborating with startups.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at exploring how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can implement a more open and co-creational business model by actively collaborating with startups.

Design/methodology/approach

Because of the novelty of the SME–startup collaboration phenomenon and to the depth of the investigation required to grasp the mechanisms and logic of an open and co-creational business model, a single-case study has been performed related to investigating a collaboration between an SME and a startup.

Findings

The authors provide detailed empirical evidence on how SMEs may structure a “systematic” approach to design and execute an open business model enabled by startup collaboration. Moreover, this study suggests that the business model innovation process represents a necessary forerunner of an open business model. Finally, the authors contend that research on open business models should entail a broader perspective beyond the innovation process, to include business model validation through testing approaches like the lean startup.

Originality/value

This study takes as the locus of investigation the original perspective of the external partner of a focal firm willing to innovate. This study offers a unique contribution because, to date, few studies adopted such view within a relevant and under-remarked empirical setting linking SMEs and innovative startups.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Rafael Fazzi Bortolini, Marcelo Nogueira Cortimiglia, Angela de Moura Ferreira Danilevicz and Antonio Ghezzi

The primary goal of a startup is to find a viable business model that can generate value for its customers while being effectively captured by the startup itself. This…

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3894

Abstract

Purpose

The primary goal of a startup is to find a viable business model that can generate value for its customers while being effectively captured by the startup itself. This business model, however, is not easily defined, being a consequence of the application of tools involving trials, data analyses and testing. The Lean Startup (LS) methodology proposes a process for agile and iterative validation of business models. Given the popularity and importance of such methodology in professional circles, the purpose of this paper is to conduct a historical literature review of existing academic and professional literature, correlating LS concepts and activities to previous theory and alternative business model validation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A historically oriented systematic literature review employing snowball sampling was conducted in order to identify academic and professional literature and references for iterative validation of business models. A total of 12 scholarly journals and professional magazines dealing with strategy, innovation, entrepreneurship, startups and management were used as data sources. The extensive literature review resulted in 963 exploratory readings and 118 papers fully analyzed.

Findings

The results position the LS as a practical-oriented and up-to-date implementation of strategies based on the Learning School of strategy making and the effectuation approach to entrepreneurship; the authors also identify a number of methods and tools that can complement the LS principles.

Originality/value

This paper identified and synthesized the scientific, academic and professional foundations that precede, support and complement the main concepts, processes and methods advocated by the LS methodology.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Angelo Cavallo, Antonio Ghezzi and Bertha Viviana Ruales Guzmán

This paper aims to investigate how a firm may innovate its business model to internationalize.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how a firm may innovate its business model to internationalize.

Design/methodology/approach

Owing to its novelty and to the depth of the investigation required to grasp the mechanisms and logics of business model innovation aiming at internationalization, a single case study has been performed related to a company located in North-Western Colombia.

Findings

The study provides detailed empirical evidences over the mutual connection and complementarities among value mechanisms of business models. Moreover, this study suggests that BMI fosters internationalization to scale, which, in turn, will require additional changes to match new customer needs as they emerge. Also, the study shows an extension of the action–space of lean startup approaches, intended as scientific approaches to international entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This study connects business model innovation and internationalization as few studies have done before.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 October 2021

Antonio Ghezzi

This study aims to introduce the original idea of competitive empathy, to go beyond competitive advantage and help managers and entrepreneurs strategize with a shared purpose.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce the original idea of competitive empathy, to go beyond competitive advantage and help managers and entrepreneurs strategize with a shared purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

This study builds on and originally combines seminal works on empathy in the fields of psychology and management, which are extended to embrace the notion of empathy toward competitors. Empirical research leveraged different methods, including “class as a lab” research; field studies; and collaborative research.

Findings

To support managers’ and entrepreneurs’ effort to be more empathic and emotionally intelligent when dealing with competitors, the study introduces the “Competitive Empathy Catalyst” tool, which identifies three layers – namely, orientation, execution and foundation – where to look for common ground between your company’s and your competitors’ strategy. A set of principles that should inspire managers’ strategic behavior and action to enable competitive empathy are also proposed: search for a non-conflicting identification with competitors and avoid “egotism”; adopt “perspective-taking”; practice “mirroring”; aim at the “greater good”; leverage “vicarious learning” and apply “cautionary trust.”

Practical implications

Looking at competitors from a different angle and applying competitive empathy as a strategic device can uncover a plethora of opportunities benefiting the company’s strategy and ability to create, deliver and capture value.

Originality/value

Empathy in management theory and practice has been traditionally associated with interaction with customers, employees and stakeholders. Competitive empathy counterintuitively applies empathy to a category of players that were largely left out from the discussion, that is, competitors.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Angelo Cavallo, Antonio Ghezzi and Silvia Sanasi

The purpose of this article is to develop a model to assess entrepreneurial ecosystems. Specifically, the authors examine how to measure value creation and value capture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to develop a model to assess entrepreneurial ecosystems. Specifically, the authors examine how to measure value creation and value capture mechanisms from a single participant's perspective and at the ecosystem level through a strategic value network-based approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on extant research on strategic networks, value networks and business models and leveraging a qualitative survey, the authors develop and test an assessment tool to measure value creation and capture within the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Findings

The authors show that value-based measures on entrepreneurial ecosystems provide a systemic approach to assess how ecosystems operate, which can guide policymakers, entrepreneurs and all the other stakeholders of entrepreneurial ecosystems in their strategic decision-making process.

Originality/value

The authors provide an original model grounded in the strategic management and entrepreneurship literature for entrepreneurial ecosystems' assessment as few studies have done before. Besides, the authors provide an illustrative attempt to show how to empirically apply the original model by assessing the San Francisco Bay Area's entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Diego Souza Silva, Antonio Ghezzi, Rafael Barbosa de Aguiar, Marcelo Nogueira Cortimiglia and Carla Schwengber ten Caten

Most studies investigating the adoption of lean startup (LS) practices by technology new ventures focus on software startups in mature entrepreneurial ecosystems and…

Abstract

Purpose

Most studies investigating the adoption of lean startup (LS) practices by technology new ventures focus on software startups in mature entrepreneurial ecosystems and disregard their applicability for opportunity exploitation in other technological backgrounds. This study contributes to this research stream by exploring how Brazilian technology new ventures (in different technological fields) tentatively adopt LS to exploit opportunities and whether LS is suitable to their emerging economy context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt an exploratory multiple-case study based on qualitative data collection and analysis of nine Brazilian biotechnology, engineering and software startups.

Findings

The study shows how technology new ventures tackle the activities of opportunity exploitation – namely, developing a product or service, acquiring human resources, gathering financial resources and setting up the organization – by leveraging LS tools and practices for business model validation; also, it identifies six contextual constraints hindering the systematic adoption of LS and reveals how technology new ventures cope with such constraints in their early stages by integrating LS with complementary strategies and practices. Furthermore, the study reveals that the systematic and comprehensive adoption of LS nurtures the development of an entrepreneurial experimental capability to explore opportunities in a quasi-scientific and hypothesis-driven fashion.

Originality/value

The study investigates how Brazilian engineering, biotechnology and software startups exploit opportunities and overcome constraints to business model validation through the combined adoption of LS and complementary strategies and practices and provides a set of propositions to guide future research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Angelo Cavallo, Silvia Sanasi, Antonio Ghezzi and Andrea Rangone

This paper aims to examine how competitive intelligence (CI) relates to the strategy formulation process of firms.

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3491

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how competitive intelligence (CI) relates to the strategy formulation process of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the novelty of the phenomenon and to the depth of the investigation required to grasp the mechanisms and logics of CI, a multiple case study has been performed related to four companies located in Brazil that adopted CI practices within dedicated business units to inform and support strategic decision-making.

Findings

The authors provide detailed empirical evidence on the connection and use of CI practices throughout each stage of the strategy formulation process. Moreover, the study suggests that CI practices, despite their strategic relevance and diffusion, are still extensively adopted for tactical use.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on how CI practices may inform, support, and be integrated in the strategy formulation process, as few studies have done before.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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