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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Lance Brennan, Les Heathcote and Anton Lucas

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…

Abstract

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.

Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.

During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.

The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.

In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.

People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.

Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.

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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Abstract

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Ethics in the Global South
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-205-5

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Pablo Adrian Garlati-Bertoldi

I evaluate how the tax reform of 2012 reduced informality in Colombia both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, I develop a labor market model and obtain…

Abstract

I evaluate how the tax reform of 2012 reduced informality in Colombia both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, I develop a labor market model and obtain simulations indicating that the reform should reduce informality significantly. Empirically, I obtain difference-in-difference estimates from two household surveys. Estimates from the repeated cross-sections data indicate small, short-term effects and large long-term effects. Estimates from the household survey panel data are in line with these results. I also simulate difference-in-difference estimates with different combinations of changes in payroll taxes and enforcement indicating that large improvements would have been needed to obtain the corresponding econometric estimates.

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Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2018

Blanca Garcia Henche

The theoretical framework of this study focuses on the trends towards experiential tourism and new communication channels in the tourist sector. The specific areas of…

Abstract

Purpose

The theoretical framework of this study focuses on the trends towards experiential tourism and new communication channels in the tourist sector. The specific areas of action that are covered in this research work focus on: a definition of experiential tourism, an analysis of markets as a resource of experiential tourism and communication strategies and the use of social media by the markets of Madrid to interact with the new experiential consumer.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is arranged as follows: first, a review of the documents on new tourist sector trends towards the demand of experiential tourism, on marketing 2.0 and on social media has been carried out; second, communication strategies of the food markets seen as tourist resources are described herein, including results of the research in the use of social media; and finally, conclusions of the study are developed.

Findings

According to the conceptual approach and after reviewing the documents cited in this paper, it is possible to conclude that food markets are tourist resources that shall be exploited as “experiential providers” for a market niche that is increasingly demanding and expects to have a “tourist experience”. The present paper contributes to the literature on experiential tourism, including new communication strategies as a tool to contact experiential tourists. Accordingly, an analysis is carried out of a specific product/resource, such as the food markets of Madrid as resources or experiential leisure centers, and a study on product strategies (offer of experiences) and communication strategies on their experiential tourism offer fundamentally based on social media and websites.

Research limitations/implications

Although this work represents an in-depth study of the food markets analyzed, the research could be extended to other markets or to other cities that are also working with markets as experiential tourism resources, though not in a structured design as in Madrid.

Practical implications

This work is different from previous studies for several reasons. In the first place, food markets are integrated as elements for the study of experiential tourism as tourist resources, and second, commercial interaction and other types of productive activities in urban centers are considered. In particular, social relations and collaboration between small retailers in markets, their managers and the institutions responsible for tourism management in the city of Madrid are barely analyzed in the literature. This includes the collaboration between public (Madrid City Council), cultural and business institutions (Madrid Fusión and Gastrofestival), hospitality and other businesses (established in the food markets) to promote cultural experiences and historic tourism.

Social implications

The performed study has several implications for employers and policymakers. As historical, cultural and experiential tourism are growing trends throughout the world, new tourist consumer profiles must be analyzed. There are new groups of tourists looking for unique experiences and “local” activities, eager to visit renovated urban historical centers with a developed experiential leisure offer. This tourist activity facilitates the rebirth of the traditional food markets and promotes the creation of jobs and new opportunities for traditional businesses as shown in the present case study focused on the markets of Madrid.

Originality/value

The present paper contributes to the literature on experiential tourism, including new communication strategies as a tool to contact experiential tourists. Accordingly, an analysis is carried out of a specific product/resource, such as the food markets of Madrid as resources or experiential leisure centers, and a study on product strategies (offer of experiences) and communication strategies on their experiential tourism offer fundamentally based on social media and websites. The role played by food markets in the creation of an experiential tourism offer in Madrid and the communication strategies generated by them is described in this research. This study not only sheds light on the changes undergone by the tourist demand, specifically urban tourism but also it helps understand some of the strategies that big tourist cities are implementing in historic centers to reduce the risks of mass tourism.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Nicklas Neuman, Lucas Gottzén and Christina Fjellström

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of men relate to food celebrities in the contemporary Swedish food-media landscape, especially celebrity chefs on TV.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of men relate to food celebrities in the contemporary Swedish food-media landscape, especially celebrity chefs on TV.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men in Sweden (22–88 years of age), with different backgrounds and with a variety of interest in food.

Findings

The paper demonstrates different ways in which the men relate to food celebrities. The men produce cultural distinctions of taste and symbolic boundaries, primarily related to gender and age, but also class. Through this, a specific position of “just right” emerged. This position is about aversion to excess, such as exaggerated gendered performances or pretentious forms of cooking. One individual plays a particularly central role in the stories: Actor and Celebrity Chef Per Morberg. He comes across as a complex cultural figure: a symbol of slobbish and tasteless cooking and a symbol of excess. At the same time, he is mentioned as the sole example of the exact opposite – as a celebrity chef who represents authenticity.

Practical implications

Scholars and policy makers must be careful of assuming culinary or social influence on consumers from food celebrities simply based on their media representations. As shown here and in similar studies, people relate to them and interpret their performances in a variety of ways.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies that target the role of food celebrities in contemporary Western consumer culture from the point of view of the consumers rather than analyses of media representations.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Abstract

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Anton Manfreda and Mojca Indihar Štemberger

A poor relationship between top management and IT personnel is often denoted as a business–IT gap. In an era of digital transformation, bridging this gap and establishing…

Abstract

Purpose

A poor relationship between top management and IT personnel is often denoted as a business–IT gap. In an era of digital transformation, bridging this gap and establishing a strong relationship between business and IT are more important than ever before. The purpose of this paper is thus to examine a particular link between business and IT managers – a partnership relationship – together with the factors facilitating it.

Design/methodology/approach

A partnership construct is developed based on interdisciplinary studies and transferred to the business–IT context since it is not generally used in IT disciplines. The model was empirically tested with structural equation modelling using data obtained from 221 IT managers in Slovenian companies.

Findings

The results show that both the perceived value of IT and the business orientation of the IT department exert a positive influence on the partnership, while a mere technology-oriented IT department has a negative effect on the partnership relationship. Furthermore, the paper also presents the prerequisites for a business-oriented IT department.

Originality/value

In this digitalisation era, IT is becoming even more important for its strategic role in organisations. There is thus a strong need to bridge the business–IT gap. Despite significant efforts made to close this gap, it remains a major issue. This research contributes to understanding the business–IT gap and presents the key factors for ensuring a partnership relationship is in place. The study also combines the views of social exchange theory and knowledge-based theory and upgrades findings concerning the influence of social facilitators on collaboration outcomes.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Anton Saveliev, Egor Aksamentov and Evgenii Karasev

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development of a novel approach for automated terrain mapping a robotic vehicles path tracing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development of a novel approach for automated terrain mapping a robotic vehicles path tracing.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach includes stitching of images, obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle, based on ORB descriptors, into an orthomosaic image and the GPS-coordinates are binded to the corresponding pixels of the map. The obtained image is fed to a neural network MASK R-CNN for detection and classification regions, which are potentially dangerous for robotic vehicles motion. To visualize the obtained map and obstacles on it, the authors propose their own application architecture. Users can any time edit the present areas or add new ones, which are not intended for robotic vehicles traffic. Then the GPS-coordinates of these areas are passed to robotic vehicles and the optimal route is traced based on this data

Findings

The developed approach allows revealing impassable regions on terrain map and associating them with GPS-coordinates, whereas these regions can be edited by the user.

Practical implications

The total duration of the algorithm, including the step with Mask R-CNN network on the same dataset of 120 items was 7.5 s.

Originality/value

Creating an orthophotomap from 120 images with image resolution of 470 × 425 px requires less than 6 s on a laptop with moderate computing power, what justifies using such algorithms in the field without any powerful and expensive hardware.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Anton Manfreda and Mojca Indihar Štemberger

The gap between top management and IS personnel is preventing organisations develop a competitive advantage based on IS. The purpose of this paper is thus to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The gap between top management and IS personnel is preventing organisations develop a competitive advantage based on IS. The purpose of this paper is thus to improve the understanding of the relationship between top management and IS personnel and to identify the key factors that are important in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Two separate questionnaires were used for IS department managers and top management to identify key factors in the relationship. In total, 221 CIOs and 93 CEOs agreed to participate in the research. To identify factors in the business-IS relationship an exploratory factor analysis was used. Further, factor scores were calculated and the independent samples t-test was used to compare these factor scores to reveal any significant differences in perceptions between CIOs and CEOs.

Findings

The empirical investigation reveals the existence of nine factors that are important in the business-IS relationship. Seven factors are perceived differently by top management and IS management and thus causing the gap in the relationship, while two factors are similarly perceived.

Practical implications

The paper presents the key areas business and IS personnel should pay attention to. Therefore, it enables reducing the business-IS gap by considering the identified factors and dedicating significant effort to the factors with significant differences.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understanding the key factors in the relationship between top and IS managers as it identifies factors that are causing the business-IS gap. Thus, it develops the existing literature since it is simultaneously focusing on managerial and IS side. The study is also valuable for researchers enabling future research in exploring these factors in detail.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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