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Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2008

Jeanne Fagnani and Antoine Math

Family policies are for the most part inextricably linked to state intervention in other aspects of public policy. Also, support to families is based on numerous…

Abstract

Family policies are for the most part inextricably linked to state intervention in other aspects of public policy. Also, support to families is based on numerous historical and social rationales. These include assisting parents with the costs of raising children, fighting against social inequality, tackling market-driven poverty and unemployment, supporting lone parents, helping parents combine family and working life, and encouraging families to have more children. The hierarchical ordering by level of importance of these rationales can vary considerably according to the country concerned.

Details

Childhood: Changing Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1419-5

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2008

Abstract

Details

Childhood: Changing Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1419-5

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2020

Mira Sabat, Roula M. Abdel-Massih, Amjad Kanaan, Sara Salloum, Mireille Serhan, Roula Fares, Nicolas Haddad and Antoine Melki

The purpose of this paper is to: (1) explore existing practices of STEM faculty at a private Lebanese university and (2) assess the extent of implementation of active…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: (1) explore existing practices of STEM faculty at a private Lebanese university and (2) assess the extent of implementation of active learning among faculty members of selected STEM departments.

Design/methodology/approach

The Working Group on “Integrating Modern Scientific teaching methodologies in STEM” (IM-STEM) at a tertiary university in Lebanon advocates for novel research-based methods to enhance STEM education. This pilot study investigated, using a modified version of the Wieman and Gilbert “Teaching Practices Inventory”, the current teaching methods used by faculty members in selected STEM departments.

Findings

Remarkably, most respondents admit a willingness to incorporate new teaching methods. Main findings indicate that traditional teaching via didactic lecturing remains prevalent in the STEM classrooms at the tertiary academic institution in Lebanon despite sporadic individual efforts by faculty members to utilize unconventional methods and active learning.

Research limitations/implications

One major limitation that influenced the efficiency of this study is the small number of respondents (71 faculty members). More in-depth data collection combining quantitative and qualitative data should be done in future studies.

Practical implications

Gaining insight into the actual methods used in STEM fields in various departments can help the university management to better understand the key importance of educational reform.

Originality/value

The main value of this paper is to serve as a prelude for educational reform at a tertiary academic institution.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2021

Philipp Kliewe, Antoine Laurain and Kersten Schmidt

Motivated by the acoustics of motor vehicles, a coupled fluid–solid system is considered. The air pressure is modeled by the Helmholtz equation, and the structure…

Abstract

Purpose

Motivated by the acoustics of motor vehicles, a coupled fluid–solid system is considered. The air pressure is modeled by the Helmholtz equation, and the structure displacement is described by elastodynamic equations. The acoustic–structure interaction is modeled by coupling conditions on the common interface. First, the existence and uniqueness of solutions are investigated, and then, after recalling fundamental notions of shape optimization, the tensor form of the distributed shape derivative is obtained for the coupled problem. It is then applied to the minimization of the sound pressure by variation of the structure shape through the positioning of beads.

Design/methodology/approach

The existence and uniqueness of solutions up to eigenfrequencies are shown by the Fredholm–Riesz–Schauder theory using a novel decomposition into an isomorphism and a compact operator. For the design optimization, the distributed shape derivative is obtained using the averaged adjoint method. It is then used in a closed 3D optimization process of the position of a bead for noise reduction. In this process, the C++ library concepts are used to solve the differential equations on hexahedral meshes with the finite element method of higher order.

Findings

The existence and uniqueness of solutions have been shown for the case without absorption, where the given proof allows for extension to the case with absorption in the domain or via boundary conditions. The theoretical results show that the averaged adjoint can be applied to compute distributed shape derivatives in the context of acoustic–structure interaction. The numerical results show that the distributed shape derivative can be used to reduce the sound pressure at a chosen frequency via rigid motions of a nonsmooth shape.

Originality/value

The proof of shape differentiability and the calculation of the distributed shape derivative in tensor form allows to consider nonsmooth shapes for the optimization, which is particularly relevant for the optimal placement of beads or stampings in a structural-acoustic system.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Abstract

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The Peripatetic Journey of Teacher Preparation in Canada
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-239-1

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Brian Euesden, Colin Gough and Jean Whittaker

The Education Reform Act and, in particular, the Local Managementof Schools will demand different skills, understanding and differingroles of senior management in…

Abstract

The Education Reform Act and, in particular, the Local Management of Schools will demand different skills, understanding and differing roles of senior management in educational establishments. This text draws on written assignments and experience of teachers and headteachers who piloted an MBA programme, designed specifically for senior teachers. Topics such as customers, product, price, promotion and the notion of teachers as a salesforce are unfamiliar to educators. They draw attention to the kind of strategic planning which will take place in schools as they take over responsibility for delegated budgets. All of this is new territory for the majority of state schools and this collection hopefully provides a useful resource.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Anghel N. Rugina

Attempts to prove, in this second chapter of the author’s monograph, that with a new research programme, it is possible to build a methodological bridge between economics…

3986

Abstract

Attempts to prove, in this second chapter of the author’s monograph, that with a new research programme, it is possible to build a methodological bridge between economics and all other natural sciences and the scientists should address this challenge. Reviews basic principles that govern nature, including Einstein’s findings along with such luminaries as Copernicus, Newton, Galileo and Jeans. Concludes that the future is safe, as a new generation of scientists is now emerging in the East and the West, and that the new methodology should provide enough space for new roads, ideas and interpretations, which may occur in the future. Closes by saying a new spirit should be initiated in economics and transplanted into natural sciences.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 27 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Anghel N. Rugina

There is a double crisis in modern science and in particular inphysics and mechanics. Among others Einstein and Stephane Lupasco, inthe 1930s, warned about this crisis…

1978

Abstract

There is a double crisis in modern science and in particular in physics and mechanics. Among others Einstein and Stephane Lupasco, in the 1930s, warned about this crisis. The Quantum Theory cannot be reconciled with the Relativity Theory. Specifically there is a gap (cleavage) between micro – and macro‐physics and mechanics. Parallel or beneath there is also a second crisis derived from a discontinuity (again a cleavage) between classical and modern science, that is between two previous revolutions. A new research programme of a simultaneous equilibrium versus disequilibrium approach, initially applied in economics has now been extended to include natural sciences. It is the question of a new, more comprehensive methodology which is actually a sui generis synthesis between classical and modern heritage. The rigorous application of the new research programme leads to the organisation of an Orientation Table, that is, a methodological map of all possible combinations (systems). The Table shows, without any exaggeration, a few revolutionary results. For instance, with the help of the Table, modern science or the second revolution (Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg) does not appear contradictory but rather complementary to classical science or the first revolution (Newton, Lavoisier). The Kuhnian thesis to the contrary is disproved and the second crisis is solved. With the help of the Universal Hypothesis of Duality (the basis of the Orientation Table), matter and energy, at the micro – and macro‐level, appear in a double form (the Principle of Duality): stable (equilibrium) particles and unstable (disequilibrium) waves. The strong interactions from modern physics are associated with the law of gravitation (attraction) or stable equilibrium which governs stable matter and energy. The weak interactions are associated with the law of disgravitation (dispersion or repulsion) including entropy or unstable equilibrium which governs unstable matter and energy. In this way the first crisis is also solved.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Peter Senn

Surveys the use of mathematics in what are now commonly called the social sciences up to the time of the earliest use of the term “social science” in the late 1700s…

1485

Abstract

Surveys the use of mathematics in what are now commonly called the social sciences up to the time of the earliest use of the term “social science” in the late 1700s. Explains the rationale for the organization and structure of the paper and proceeds to reason for the broad definition of mathematics as it relates to the social sciences. The introduction also describes the periodization used. The next section contains a brief description of the state of what were to become the social sciences in the late 1700s. This is followed by a brief description of the state of mathematics at that time. Then follow sections demonstrating that mathematics was used by important developers of social thought from the earliest times right up to the dawn of the modern social sciences. Concludes with a discussion of some of the lessons to be learned from history. The most important lesson that history teaches us about the role of mathematics in the modern social sciences at the dawn of their existence is that the social sciences require the use of mathematics and could not exist without them.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Nicolas Antheaume

The purpose of this paper is to present a history of social and environmental accounting (SEA) in France.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a history of social and environmental accounting (SEA) in France.

Design/methodology/approach

The choice is made to select and analyze three important breakthroughs in the development of SEA in France, at different periods. Three case studies are presented, based on secondary sources for two of them and on the author’s own research for the third one. The author choses the concept of organizational field, defined through its actors, how they interact, what they do, what tools and practices are being developed and what regulations are being enacted.

Findings

If each case is different in terms of context and outcome, all three present common characteristics which characterize the underlying forces which shaped SEA in France: mainly the role played by elites both in government and industry, an ability for industry to present its interests as the interests of France with an impact on the international standardization of some tools and regulatory issues such as product labeling. The French scene is dominated by engineers, characterized by quantitative tools which “measure” environmental performance, in line with the culture of the French elite for which mathematics are a tool for action and problem-solving. In a certain way this “depoliticized” environmental questions and made them a question of optimization more than a question of politics.

Practical implications

Because of the specific context in which some tools emerge, they may not be transferable to other countries without important changes.

Social implications

The focus on problem solving through quantitative tools to make the most rational decision, and the claim by the engineering profession to be in the best position to do so, is not a focus on accountability. This may be part of the reason why the accounting profession is not as involved as in other countries.

Originality/value

This paper also shows how France has been both a local field of SEA production, when it comes to developing quantitative tools, with occasional global reach, and an importer of global standards and SEA concepts which originated from the Anglo-Saxon word, when it comes to reporting. More generally, it is also a good illustration of how the development of a “local” organizational field is congruent with the characteristic of its national environment.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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