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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Rocio Martin-Santos, Elfi Egmond, Myriam Cavero, Zoe Mariño, Susana Subira, Ricard Navines, Xavier Forns and Manuel Valdes

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, antiviral therapy, depression, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, antiviral therapy, depression, and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

CHC and its treatment options were reviewed examining their relationship with depression and gender.

Findings

CHC is a high prevalent chronic infection worldwide, being similar in men and women. However, the infection shows many gender differences in terms of innate response, genetic variability (i.e. IL-28B), route of transmission (i.e. intravenous drug use), disease progression (i.e. fibrosis), lifetime period (i.e. pregnancy), and risk factors (i.e. HIV). Both the hepatitis C infection and antiviral treatment (especially when using the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon α), are highly associated with depression, where female gender constitutes a risk factor. It seems that the new direct-acting antiviral combinations produce fewer neuropsychiatric side effects. In fact, the presence of depression at baseline is no longer a limitation for the initiation of antiviral treatment. Antidepressant drugs have been recommended as current depression and prophylactic treatment in risk subgroups. However, caution should be exercised due to the risk of drug-drug interactions with some antiviral drugs. Women should be counselled prenatal, during and after pregnancy, taking into account the clinical situation, and the available evidence of the risks and benefits of antiviral and antidepressant treatments. Multidisciplinary approach shows cost-efficacy results.

Originality/value

The paper clarifies the complex management of CHC therapy and the importance of individualizing treatment. The results also underline the need for an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Payal Patel-Dovlatabadi

The aim of this paper is to identify factors (i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, type of medical facility, geographical location, etc.) associated with physicians' prescribing…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to identify factors (i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, type of medical facility, geographical location, etc.) associated with physicians' prescribing behavior when treating influenza in the USA. The study aims to examine why the number of antiviral prescriptions remains substandard.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for each influenza season between the years of 2005-2008. Bivariate analyses and two models of multivariate logistic regression analyses (one with no fixed effect and the other including year as a fixed effect) were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The results from this study revealed that among family practice physicians, 40.5 percent prescribed antiviral medications to patients presenting with influenza while 59.5 percent prescribed another form of medication. Antibiotics comprised 41.3 percent of the prescriptions for treatment of influenza. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that race (White; p=0.023), type of health setting (private solo/group practice; p=0.041), employment status (owner; p=0.046), and metropolitan location (metropolitan statistical area; p=0.032) were all significantly associated with prescribing antivirals. Patients' expected source of payment (private insurance) and geographical location (Midwest) of health facility were marginally associated with prescribing antivirals.

Originality/value

By identifying factors associated with physicians' prescribing practices of antiviral medications, a more timely diagnosis and treatment of influenza can occur. Efforts should be targeted to improve physician education and awareness of the illness. Interventions may be implemented to improve the prescribing of antiviral medications and potentially inappropriate prescribing.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Michael Mokhlis Mina, Lilie Herawati, Tony Butler and Andrew Lloyd

Hepatitis C (HCV) infections are prevalent in custodial settings worldwide, yet provision of antiviral therapies is uncommon. Approximately 30,000 prisoners are held in…

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Abstract

Purpose

Hepatitis C (HCV) infections are prevalent in custodial settings worldwide, yet provision of antiviral therapies is uncommon. Approximately 30,000 prisoners are held in Australian prisons at any one time, with more than 30 per cent testing positive for HCV antibodies. Prisoners have been identified in the National Hepatitis C Strategy as a priority population for assessment and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the rates of HCV testing and treatment, as well as barriers and opportunities for development of infrastructure for enhanced services.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 55 stakeholders from the correctional sector in each state and territory in Australia in two stages: service directors to gather quantitative data regarding rates of testing and treatment; and other stakeholders for qualitative information regarding barriers and opportunities.

Findings

Of more than 50,000 individuals put in in custody in Australian prisons in 2013, approximately 8,000 individuals were HCV antibody positive, yet only 313 prisoners received antiviral treatment. The barriers identified to assessment and treatment at the prisoner-level included: fear of side effects and the stigma of being identified to custodial authorities as HCV infected and a likely injecting drug user. Prisoners who came forward may be considered unsuitable for treatment because of prevalent mental health problems and ongoing injecting drug use. Provision of specialist hepatitis nurses and consultants were the most frequently recommended approaches to how prison hepatitis services could be improved.

Originality/value

Many personal and systems-level barriers relevant to the delivery of HCV treatment services in the custodial setting were identified. Ready access to skilled nursing and medical staff as well as direct acting antiviral therapies will allow the prison-sector to make a major contribution to control of the growing burden of HCV disease.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

B. Schulte, H. Stover, K. Thane, C. Schreiter, D. Gansefort and J. Reimer

Injection drug use (IDU) and IDU‐related infectious diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly prevalent among…

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Abstract

Injection drug use (IDU) and IDU‐related infectious diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly prevalent among prisoners worldwide. However, little is known about the prevalence of IDUs, HCV/HIV and the availability of respective treatment options in German prisons. Data provided by prison physicians of 31 prisons, representing 14,537 inmates, were included in this analysis. The proportion of IDUs among all prisoners was 21.9%. Substitution treatment was available in three out of four prisons (74.2%). Overall, 1137 substitution treatments were provided annually with a wide range of treatment aims. The prevalence rate was 14.3% for HCV and 1.2% for HIV. Around 5.5% of all HCV‐infected prisoners were in antiviral treatment annually, 86.5% of all HIV‐positive inmates in antiretroviral HIV‐treatment. Generally, substitution treatment, and HCV and HIV testing and treatment are available. However, due to abstinence‐orientated treatment aims, substitution treatment is rarely available as maintenance treatment, and HCV/HIV‐treatment is mainly provided for patients with an existing treatment before imprisonment. The inconsistent data quality necessitates changes in prison‐related policy to improve surveillance and to generate aggregated data in German prisons. The selection process in this analysis might lead to overestimating the provision of substitution and antiviral HCV‐treatment.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Niyi Awofeso and William D. Rawlinson

Repeated influenza outbreaks are surprisingly rare in prison settings worldwide, a factor that has made it superfluous, to date, to develop contingency plans for…

Abstract

Repeated influenza outbreaks are surprisingly rare in prison settings worldwide, a factor that has made it superfluous, to date, to develop contingency plans for responding to prison‐based influenza epidemics. However, the influenza outbreak that occurred in an Australian prison in 2000 has highlighted the appropriateness of developing an outbreak plan, not least because of the security implications of a widespread prison influenza epidemic. Using reported attack rates and morbidity profiles of the 2000 Australian prison influenza outbreak to develop scenarios, the authors estimated the cost ‐ benefit of mass vaccination and antiviral chemotherapy approaches for the control of hypothetical widespread influenza outbreaks in New South Wales prisons, occurring at an average frequency of once every 10 years. It was concluded that, from the perspectives of maintaining prison security as well as health care services’ provision to prisoners, early antiviral chemotherapy for symptomatic individuals will have more favourable cost ‐ benefit ratios than a mass vaccination approach for controlling prison‐based influenza outbreaks that occur in line with this model.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Gangadhar Ch, Thirumal S., Ramesh R., Damaraju Sri Sai Satyanarayana, Asadi Srinivasulu and Kranthi Kumar K.

The present digital world’s challenging issue is COVID-19. This paper is related to the process of the COVID-19 treatment based on age, gender, symptoms and previous…

Abstract

Purpose

The present digital world’s challenging issue is COVID-19. This paper is related to the process of the COVID-19 treatment based on age, gender, symptoms and previous health issues. This paper gives the deep discussion about the prevention, symptoms, tests and treatment process. In this research work, the discussion is about vaccine invention and the side effects of the consumed medication.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a clear explanation of the types of vaccine, which are lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and plasma therapy. Thereafter, the discussion is prolonged to Indian vaccine for COVID-19.

Findings

This paper examines some of the COVID-19 treatment processes and difficulties, and finally, this paper aims to summarize and give an overview of the present preclinical research and clinical trials of potential candidates for COVID-19 treatments and vaccines.

Originality/value

The required information has been taken from online databases such as PubMed, Science, Nature, PNAS and Cell. Papers included were published between December 2019 and July 2020. The current results indicate the most promising outcomes for dexamethasone as a treatment and vaccine. Further research is needed to identify safe and effective treatments and vaccines for COVID-19.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 1 December 2020

So far, only few treatments have shown benefit in clinical trials. The complexity of the disease means a ‘one treatment for all’ drug may still be a long way away from…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB257900

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Sonam Angmo

The aim of this chapter is to study catastrophic pandemics which have occurred in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and their disruptive impact on tourism mobility…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to study catastrophic pandemics which have occurred in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and their disruptive impact on tourism mobility. A detailed study of past pandemics is conducted starting from the black death or bubonic plague of 1346 to the recent COVID-19 outbreak and effect of these diseases on the tourism and economy of the infected countries. Studies show that influenza pandemics will prove to be the most dangerous in future, and the next outbreak could occur from any of the 16 known HA (haemagglutinin) subtypes. Also, it is found that tourism itself has been responsible for spread of pandemic outbreaks as countries around the world put an enormous emphasis on increased growth of tourist numbers. Among recent pandemics, it was severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that caused the major decrease in international tourist arrivals although for a short term. Such pandemics have a negative effect on tourism destinations by damaging their image and competitiveness, and as a result, leading to disruptions in mobility of tourists, with Asian countries being the most at risk of such disruptions. Therefore, the findings of this study stress the need for pre-crisis management to handle such outbreaks, better traveller tracking system to check infected persons and the need for tourism destinations to diversify their economies to reduce dependency on tourism.

Details

Virus Outbreaks and Tourism Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-335-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Julia Anne Silano, Carla Treloar, Thomas Wright, Tracey Brown, Colette McGrath and Phillip Snoyman

This commentary aims to reveal how a steering committee has effectively responded to advancing accessibility to harm reduction resources, hepatitis C virus (HCV) policy…

Abstract

Purpose

This commentary aims to reveal how a steering committee has effectively responded to advancing accessibility to harm reduction resources, hepatitis C virus (HCV) policy and health strategies within adult prison settings in New South Wales (NSW).

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing the audit approach taken by the of the Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network and Corrective Services New South Wales Harm Reduction Reference Group (JHFMHN/CSNSW HRRG), this commentary emphasizes the committee’s success in identifying contemporary harm reduction issues that affect people in custodial settings. This commentary is a compilation of data gathered through the 2018 JHFMHN/CSNSW HRRG audit and corresponding program materials. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the working group’s audit were drawn by critically appraising the JHFMHN/CSNSW HRRG’s Final Audit Report (JHFMHN and CSNSW, 2018) with reference to current harm reduction literature.

Findings

The HRRG has provided leadership, professional representation and strategic advice on the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of best practice harm reduction strategies in prison settings. The HRRG developed and maintained networks and information exchange between the state-wide HCV health network, corrections services and the NSW harm reduction sector at large. Public health partnerships and advocacy that involve all key players, such as the HRRG, will continue to be crucial to remove barriers to enhancing HCV harm reduction measures especially in NSW prison settings.

Social implications

Strategies such as primary prevention and treatment can mitigate the spread of HCV in the custodial system. This audit of access to harm reduction resources was conducted on behalf of the diverse group of professionals, scholars and stakeholders comprising the HRRG. This audit and other advocacy efforts of this committee can facilitate future access to quality healthcare and the necessary policies required to support a healthier prison population at large.

Originality/value

Collaborating with health authorities, researchers and social service workers can enable prison health-care systems to be guided by wider health workforce programs and public health standards. This collaboration can reduce the professional isolation of custodial health-care staff and promote a balanced approach to harm reduction policies by ensuring an equitable focus on both health and security imperatives.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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