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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Nancy Walter, Rachel H. McQueen and Monika Keelan

Antimicrobials may be incorporated into garments to protect the textiles, control malodour or to potentially reduce the spread of infection. Yet still not well understood…

Abstract

Purpose

Antimicrobials may be incorporated into garments to protect the textiles, control malodour or to potentially reduce the spread of infection. Yet still not well understood is how antimicrobial-treated textiles may influence a person's resident microflora during wear, as limited in vivo testing has previously been carried out. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether normal skin microflora was altered as a result of contact with selected antimicrobial-treated fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Three selected antimicrobial-treated fabrics (i.e. Fabric 1: triclosan; Fabric 2: zinc pyrithione derivative; and Fabric 3: silver chloride and titanium dioxide) were placed on the forearm of participants (n=19). Bacterial counts obtained under treated and untreated fabrics following 24 hours of occlusion were compared. The antimicrobial efficacy of fabrics displayed in vitro was also compared with the activity displayed in vivo.

Findings

Two of the three fabrics (Fabrics 1 and 2) reduced bacterial populations on the skin following 24 hours occlusion compared to the matched control fabrics (Fabric 1: p<0.05; Fabric 2: p<0.001). Whereas, following occlusion with Fabric 3 bacterial populations were not significantly different than the matched control. The present study demonstrated that in vitro assessment of antimicrobial capacities of fabrics do not necessarily predict the effects of such fabrics during wear.

Originality/value

The paper highlights that in vivo studies are a necessary and important tool for understanding the interactions of an antimicrobial-treated fabric with the wearer's skin. As well, the new method developed can be used by other researchers to examine the potential impact on skin microflora due to contact with antimicrobial-treated textiles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Nataís Fleck, Voltaire Sant’Anna, Wemerson de Castro Oliveira, Adriano Brandelli and Flávio Fonseca Veras

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract from jaboticaba skin against important foodborne bacteria and fungi and its stability.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract from jaboticaba skin against important foodborne bacteria and fungi and its stability.

Design/methodology/approach

Jaboticaba skin aqueous extract (at ratio of 10 g L-1) was tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Stability of the anti-staphylococcal activity, total phenolics, monomeric anthocyanins, tannins, phenolic acid content were measured and statistically correlated.

Findings

The residue extract inhibited L.monocytogenes, S.aureus, B.cereus and E.coli growth but was not effective against fungi and was stable to the thermal treatments, remaining with its inhibitory activity against S.aureus. When stored for 14 days at 25 °C with an incidence of light, there was a reduction in the antibacterial activity and in the phenolic compounds. The change in pH slightly changed polyphenolic content profile, and the exposure to papain and bromelain did not affect the antimicrobial activity. Results showed strong correlation between anti-staphylococcal activity, the presence of polyphenols and anthocyanins, meanwhile moderate correlation with phenolic acids content in the extract.

Originality/value

Biopreservatives are a great trend in food microbiology. The present work shows deeper information about the utilization of jaboticaba skin as antimicrobial agent and its stability, which is not found in the current literature.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

H. Abd El-Wahab and Raafat A. El-Eisawy

This paper aims to prepare new modified alkyd resins and use it as an antimicrobial binder for surface coating applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prepare new modified alkyd resins and use it as an antimicrobial binder for surface coating applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Various modified alkyd resins were prepared by partial replacement of 3,6-dichloro benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl bis-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-amide as a source of polyol with glycerol and confirmed by acid value, FT-IR, 1H-NMR. The modified alkyd resins were covering a wide range of oil lengths and hydroxyl content (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% excess-OH). The antimicrobial activity of the prepared alkyds was also investigated. The coatings of 60 ± 5 µm thickness were applied to the surface of glass panels and mild steel strips by means of a brush. Physico-mechanical tests, chemical resistance and antimicrobial activities were investigated.

Findings

The obtained results illustrate that the introduction of benzo[b]thiophene derivative as a modifier polyol within the resin structure improved the film performance and enhanced the physico-mechanical characteristics, chemical resistance and the antimicrobial activities.

Practical implications

The modified alkyd resins can be employed as antimicrobial binders in paint compositions for a variety of surfaces, particularly those that are susceptible to a high number of bacteria.

Originality/value

Modified alkyd resins based on antimicrobial heterocyclic compounds have the potential to be promising in the manufacturing of antimicrobial coatings and development of paints, allowing them to function to prevent the spread of microbial infection, which is exactly what the world requires at this time. Also, they can be applied in different substrates for industrial applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Chaimae Rais, Asmae Driouch, Chaimae Slimani, Aymane Bessi, Mounyr Balouiri, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Abderrahim Lazraq and Jamila Al Figuigui

This paper aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the jujube fruit.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the jujube fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

The fruit samples were harvested from Ziziphus lotus L. in three regions of Morocco: Aïn Chifae (Immouzer), Saiss (Fez) and Guercif. The fruit extracts were obtained by Soxhlet method using ethanol, methanol and water, and then a phytochemical screening was done for each extract. Total phenolic and total flavonoids contents were also determined. Afterward, the antimicrobial activity of the studied extracts was evaluated using the broth microdilution method. To estimate the total antioxidant effect of these extracts, the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging and phosphomolybdate tests were performed.

Findings

Results showed that the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids was found for ethanol and methanol extracts, while the lowest content was found in the aqueous extracts for all populations studied. Thus, results showed that the highest content of phenolic compounds was recorded in the population of Fez. Methanol extract of this population was the richest in polyphenols (30.36 mg/g) and in flavonoids (13.03 mg/g). The antimicrobial tests showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most sensitive (6.25 mg/ml), compared to the other tested strains. Based on the minimal bactericidal concentrations/minimal fungicidal concentration or MFC/MIC ratio, it seems that ethanol extracts showed a bactericidal effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillis, and a bacteriostatic effect against Enterococcus faecalis. On the other hand, the methanol extract showed bacteriostatic effect against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, methanol extracts of Ziziphus lotus have significant antioxidant potent.

Originality/value

Methanol and ethanol extracts of Ziziphus lotus fruit have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effect. Moreover, the authors were able to show that the extract of Ziziphus lotus fruit has a very important antioxidant power.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2018

Noraini Mahmad, R.M. Taha, Rashidi Othman, Sakinah Abdullah, Nordiyanah Anuar, Hashimah Elias and Norlina Rawi

The purpose of this paper is to validate the antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) of in vivo and in vitro ethanolic anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) of in vivo and in vitro ethanolic anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria ternatea L. (vivid blue flower butterfly-pea) and Dioscorea alata L. (purple yam) against selected bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp.).

Design/methodology/approach

The freeze-dried samples (0.2 g) from in vivo vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. were extracted using 10 mL ethanol (produced ethanolic red extraction) and 10 mL distilled water (produced aqueous blue extraction) separately. Two-month-old in vitro callus samples (0.2 g) were only extracted using 10 mL ethanol. The anthocyanin extractions were separated with the addition (several times) of ethyl acetate and distilled water (1:2:3) to remove stilbenoids, chlorophyll, less polar flavonoids and other non-polar compounds. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties were determined using agar diffusion technique. Three bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli) and fungi (F. sp., A. niger and T. sp.) were streaked on bacteria agar and dextrose agar, respectively, using “hockey stick”. Then, the sterile paper discs (6 mm diameter) were pipetted with 20 µL of 1,010 CFU/mL chloramphenicol (as control for antibacterial) and carbendazim (as control for antifungal) in vivo and in vitro extracts. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48 h, and the inhibition zones were measured.

Findings

Based on the results, both in vivo and in vitro ethanolic extracts from vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. showed the best antibacterial activity against the same bacteria (B. subtilis), 11 and 10 mm inhibition zones, respectively. However, different antifungal activity was detected in in vitro ethanolic callus extract (12 mm), which was against T. sp., contrary to in vivo ethanolic extract (10 mm), which was against F. sp.; antibacterial activity of D. alata L. was seen against the same bacteria (E. coli) with the highest inhibition zone for in vivo extract (8.8 mm), followed by in vitro extract (7.8 mm).

Research limitations/implications

Anthocyanins are responsible for the water soluble and vacuolar, pink, red, purple and blue pigments present in coloured plant pigments. These pigments (pink, red, purple and blue) are of important agronomic value in many crops and ornamental plants. However, anthocyanins are not stable and are easy to degrade and fade whenever exposed to light.

Social implications

Plant extracts containing bioactive agents with antimicrobial properties have been found to be useful in treating bacterial and fungal infections, as well as showed multiple antibiotic resistance.

Originality/value

Both in vivo and in vitro extracts from vivid blue flower petals (C. ternatea L.) and purple yam (D. alata L.) have important applications as natural antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) agents in the coating industry, instead of natural pharmaceutical products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Ismahen Essaidi, Ahmed Snoussi, Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier, Hervé Casabianca and Nabiha Bouzouita

The paper aims to analyse the effect of acid hydrolysis on the chemical composition and the biological activities of Rubia tinctorum collected from the south of Tunisia…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyse the effect of acid hydrolysis on the chemical composition and the biological activities of Rubia tinctorum collected from the south of Tunisia. It proposes to clarify the relationship between alizarin content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rubia extract.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for analytical tools (HPLC) and the in-vitro study of biological activities, namely, the antioxidant activity which is evaluated using the radical scavenging assay (ABTS) and ferric reducing power assay (FRAP); the antimicrobial activity is tested using the wells agar diffusion method.

Findings

The paper provides information about the positive effect of acid hydrolysis, namely, the enhancement of alizarin content in the extract which has increased its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the relationship between the chemical composition, biological activities and colour enhancement.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Mohamed H. Sharaf, Adham M. Nagiub, Salem S. Salem, Mohamed H. Kalaba, Esmail M. El Fakharany and Hamada Abd El-Wahab

This study aims to focus on the preparation and characterization of the silver nanowire (AgNWs), as well as their application as antimicrobial and antivirus activities

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the preparation and characterization of the silver nanowire (AgNWs), as well as their application as antimicrobial and antivirus activities either with incorporation on the waterborne coating formulation or on their own.

Design/methodology/approach

Prepared AgNWs are characterized by different analytical instruments, such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction spectrometer. All the paint formulation's physical and mechanical qualities were tested using American Society for Testing and Materials, a worldwide standard test procedure. The biological activities of the prepared AgNWs and the waterborne coating based on AgNWs were investigated. And, their effects on pathogenic bacteria, antioxidants, antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were also investigated.

Findings

The obtained results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of the paint formulation demonstrated the formulations' greatest performance, as well as giving good scrub resistance and film durability. In the antimicrobial activity, the paint did not have any activity against bacterial pathogen, whereas the AgNWs and AgNWs with paint have similar activity against bacterial pathogen with inhibition zone range from 10 to 14 mm. The development of antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the paint incorporated with AgNWs were also observed. The cytopathic effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were reduced in all three investigated modes of action when compared to the positive control group (HSV-1-infected cells), suggesting that these compounds have promising antiviral activity against a wide range of viruses, including DNA and RNA viruses.

Originality/value

The new waterborne coating based on nanoparticles has the potential to be promising in the manufacturing and development of paints, allowing them to function to prevent the spread of microbial infection, which is exactly what the world requires at this time.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

M. Janarthanan and M. Senthil Kumar

The healthcare and hygiene textiles are gaining more importance for their eco-friendly and effective antimicrobial properties that have become essential to safeguard human…

Abstract

Purpose

The healthcare and hygiene textiles are gaining more importance for their eco-friendly and effective antimicrobial properties that have become essential to safeguard human beings from harmful microorganisms. The fabrics finished with chemical-based antimicrobial agents lead to environmental issues and are harmful to human beings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present investigation is to develop a fabric with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties using the extracts of brown algae. Antimicrobial property has been imparted to the cotton fabric using microcapsules of brown seaweed extracts using the pad-dry-cure method. The presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of brown algae extracts was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging technique, respectively. The total phenolic content of the seaweed extract was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum inhibitory concentration methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the bacterial reduction percentage and parallel streak methods were used evaluate the antibacterial activity of seaweed-treated fabrics.

Findings

The methanol fraction of the treated fabric had the highest antioxidant activity (42.5+1.21 per cent), because the higher phenolic content traps the reactive oxygen species and develops the cells present in the skin. The results show that the lower inhibition (250 µg/mL) and bactericidal concentrations (1,000 µg/mL) possess higher antibacterial activity. The results also show that the treated fabric possess higher bacterial reduction of 96 per cent and higher zone of inhibition against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus which was about 35 mm and 40 mm. The air permeability, bending length and the wicking behaviour of the treated fabric were slightly reduced, but it has good bursting strength compared with the untreated fabric.

Originality/value

Such treated fabric is used for making wound dressing, surgical gowns, antibacterial socks and gauze bandage products in healthcare and hygiene textiles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Muhammad Taher, Suzanah Abdulrahman, Ibrahim Abu Bakar, Rizal Damanik and Azhary Yahaya

The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-bacterial anti-fungal activity of six Lamiaceae family coleus plants based on their traditional uses (breast-milk stimulants…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-bacterial anti-fungal activity of six Lamiaceae family coleus plants based on their traditional uses (breast-milk stimulants) from two Asian countries (Malaysia and Indonesia).

Design/methodology/approach

Plants leaves of coleus species were collected from Kuantan (Malaysia) and Jakarta (Indonesia). From Kuantan, Coleus aromaticus – Malaysia (CATM), Pogostemon cablin – Malaysia (PCM), Coleus blumei-purple leaves – Malaysia (CBPM), Coleus blumei-red leaves – Malaysia (CBRM), Coleus amboinicus – Malaysia (CALM) and from Jakarta Coleus amboinicus – Indonesia (CALI) were collected freeze dried and extracted with aqueous methanol. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by making use of macro dilution and disc diffusion methods. The selected bacteria and fungus used were namely Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative) and Candida albicans (a fungi).

Findings

All leaf extracts showed activity at least against one strain of bacteria and the result shows that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the activities on microorganism. The minimum inhibitory concentration of all leaves extracts ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 mg/ml in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. This study shows that the coleus plants leaves can be used as anti-bacterial anti-fungal agent apart from the breast-milk stimulation properties.

Research limitations/implications

This research was carried out with a limited grant and it was not possible to study some more aspects, for example, the composition and the active components isolation, etc. Furthermore, to establish the relationship among the components and bacteria or fungus, etc.

Practical implications

This research would have greater impact since the leaves of coleus plants are already in use in some communities for the purpose of breast-milk stimulation and insect bite therapy and many more.

Originality/value

This research takes into consideration the effect of coleus plants on a few bacteria and a fungus which have never been studied before.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Clem Maidment, Allan Dyson and Iain Haysom

This paper is aimed at food science or biology students planning a practical independent study into the antimicrobial properties of spices and academic staff wishing to…

1973

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is aimed at food science or biology students planning a practical independent study into the antimicrobial properties of spices and academic staff wishing to develop a straightforward and reproducible practical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Disc‐diffusion assays are used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and cloves against two bacteria Escherichia coli B and staphylococcus albus and a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the spices and alcoholic extracts of their essential oils are examined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of alcoholic extracts of both spices and oils are also determined.

Findings

Both spices demonstrated microbial inhibitory effects; alcoholic extracts had greater activity than aqueous extracts. Additionally, essential oils had greater activity than the spices. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were smaller with the oils than with the spices.

Research limitations/implications

Although the research for this paper involved just two spices, such is the size of the plant kingdom that there are wide opportunities for further investigations using this procedure.

Practical implications

Disc‐assays were found to be a simple, cheap and reproducible practical method. For this paper, micro‐organisms available for educational purposes were used; however, other organisms could be investigated depending upon available microbiological expertise and facilities.

Originality/value

The results demonstrate that the antimicrobial effects of spices and particularly their essential oils can be examined using disc‐diffusion assay. The method provides many opportunities for student investigation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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