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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Gaiqing Zhao, Qin Zhao, Xiaobo Wang and Weimin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to study a novel Mannich adduct of benztriazole-containing diphenylamine (coded as BD) and its anti-oxidation properties as an additive in two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study a novel Mannich adduct of benztriazole-containing diphenylamine (coded as BD) and its anti-oxidation properties as an additive in two typical synthetic ester-based oils.

Design/methodology/approach

The anti-oxidation properties in two typical synthetic ester-based oils were evaluated in detail, using rotating pressure vessel oxidation test. The tribological properties of BD in synthetic ester-based oil (A51) were also tested with Optimal SRV-I oscillating friction and wear tester at atmosphere.

Findings

The results of tests demonstrated that the novel BD compound is, indeed, a high-performance anti-oxidation additive that was able to remarkably improve the oxidation stability of synthetic ester-based oils, when it was added at only 0.5 per cent concentration and compared with the base oils containing 0.5 per cent of the commercial available antioxidant additives such as 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and octyl-butyl diphenylamine. A plausible mechanism of exceptional synergistic anti-oxidation was proposed.

Originality/value

This paper first investigated the anti-oxidation properties and mechanisms of the compound with the structure of BD, which can be very useful and would promote the application of BD antioxidant in the lubricant industry.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Fen Peng, Wensheng Liu, Yufeng Huang, Siwei Tang, Chaoping Liang and Yunzhu Ma

The purpose of this study is to develop a monolayer surface coating of stearic acid on Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder to limit oxidation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a monolayer surface coating of stearic acid on Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder to limit oxidation.

Design/methodology/approach

Stearic acid was adsorbed onto Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder through liquid-phase adsorption. The isotherm of adsorption was measured and then the microstructure of coated powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

Findings

The adsorption isotherm of stearic acid on the powder was “H” type, which revealed the layer-by-layer adsorption on non-porous surface. When the concentration of solution was in the range of 0.001-0.006 mol/L, with an adsorption amount of 0.12 ± 0.1 mg/g, monolayer stearic acid covered the solder powder completely. Uniform and integrated self-assembled monolayer coating was formed through hydrogen bonds between the oxygen ions in surface lattice of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder powder and the —O—H hydroxyl group of stearic acid. The maximum angle of stability of coated powder also reduced by 2.87° compared with that of non-coated powder. The increase rate of oxygen content of coated powder was much slower than that of non-coated powder when they were exposed to humid air.

Originality/value

As a result, oxidation of fine solder powder was effectively limited. Essentially, this method can also be applied to the coating of other types of solder powder and has reference significance to other coating by liquid-phase method.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Bingxue Cheng, Haitao Duan, Yongliang Jin, Lei Wei, Jia Dan, Song Chen and Jian Li

This paper aims to investigate the thermal oxidation characteristics of the unsaturated bonds (C=C) of trimethylolpropane trioleate (TMPTO) and to reveal the high…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the thermal oxidation characteristics of the unsaturated bonds (C=C) of trimethylolpropane trioleate (TMPTO) and to reveal the high temperature oxidation decay mechanism of unsaturated esters and the nature of the anti-oxidation properties of the additives.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a DXR laser microscopic Raman spectrometer and Linkam FTIR600 temperature control platform, the isothermal oxidation experiments of TMPTO with or without 1.0 wt. % of different antioxidants were performed.

Findings

The results indicated that the Raman peaks of =C-H, C=C and -CH2- weaken gradually with prolonged oxidation time, and the corresponding Raman intensities drop rapidly at higher temperatures. The aromatic amine antioxidant can decrease the attenuation of peak intensity, as it significantly reduces the rate constant of C=C thermal oxidation. The hindered phenolic antioxidant has a protective effect during the early stages of oxidation (induction period), but it may accelerate the oxidation of C=C afterwards.

Originality/value

Research on the structure changes of synthetic esters during oxidation by Raman spectroscopy will be of great importance in promoting the use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze the oxidation of lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Weiguo Xue, Wenquan Ma, Xiaohong Xu, Tao Li, Xuguang Zhou and Peng Wang

Thiadiazole compounds and their derivatives have carrying capacity and good lubricating properties. However, their poor oil-solubility limited their wide usage in…

Abstract

Purpose

Thiadiazole compounds and their derivatives have carrying capacity and good lubricating properties. However, their poor oil-solubility limited their wide usage in lubricating oil. The study aims to develop thiadiazole lubricant additives with better oil-solubility. When the hindered phenol antioxidation functional group and alkyl-chain are introduced to thiadiazole, the resulting product could have better oil-solubility and excellent antioxidation resistance, anti-wear and corrosion resistance in the lubricating oil.

Design/methodology/approach

One kind of thiadiazole lubricant additive, for the first time, has been synthesized from 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole. Its tribological performance has also been evaluated by four-ball test. And, its oxidation resistance has been estimated by rotating pressure vessel oxidation test and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. The anticorrosion performance of such an additive has been studied by GB/T 5096 standard method test.

Findings

The synthesized thiadiazole additive has excellent anti-oxidation capability, good anti-wear and extreme pressure properties and good anticorrosion performance, in comparison with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP). In base oils, the comprehensive performance of thiadiazole additive is comparable to ZDDP. Mechanistic studies indicate that the S and N active elements were involved in the formation of a boundary film. This may account for the formation of a composite membrane on the metal surface and thus for the tribological performance of such thiadiazole additives.

Originality/value

The thiadiazole derivatives, which are ashless and have environmentally friendly features, are a potential alternative to ZDDP. Because of the film formed on the friction surface, thiadiazole compounds may serve as an excellent anti-wear additive and are expected to reduce friction and wear between metals.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2018

Fupeng Cheng, Jinglong Cui, Shuai Xu, Song Li, Pengchao Zhang and Juncai Sun

The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of AISI 430 stainless steel (430 SS) in increasing its oxidation resistance, suppressing coating spalling and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of AISI 430 stainless steel (430 SS) in increasing its oxidation resistance, suppressing coating spalling and cracking, sustaining appropriate conductivity and blocking Cr evaporation as an interconnect material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells; a protective co-contained coating is formed onto stainless steel via the surface alloying process and followed by thermal oxidation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, oxidation behavior of coated specimen is studied during isothermal and cyclic oxidation measurements. Moreover, the conductivity is also investigated by area specific resistance (ASR) measurement.

Findings

Co-contained spinel layer shows an outstanding performance in preventing oxidation and improving conductivity compared with uncoated specimens. The protective spinel coating also reduces the ASR for coated specimen (0.0576O cm2) as compared to the uncoated specimen (1.87296O cm2) after isothermal oxidation.

Originality/value

The probable mechanism of co-contained alloy converting into spinel and the spinel transfer electron is presented.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

R.A. El‐Adly, E.A.M. Youssef, S.M. El‐Sayed and M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar

This paper reports on the preparation of six formulations (G1‐G6) containing mixed soap greases based on cotton soap stock, aromatic extract, heavy alkylate and lube base…

Abstract

This paper reports on the preparation of six formulations (G1‐G6) containing mixed soap greases based on cotton soap stock, aromatic extract, heavy alkylate and lube base oil. The physicochemical properties of these ingredients were characterised. The consistency, dropping point and mechanical stability of the formulated greases were assessed and tested in accordance with the National Laboratory for Grease Institute standards, and compared with the Egyptian Standards. The properties of the formulated grease G4 proved to be the best. The work reported also includes preparation of itaconyl‐o‐tolidine‐, itaconyl bisaniline‐ and itaconyl m‐phenylene‐ amide polymers. The structure of these polymers was investigated using infrared spectroscopy, micro analysis and gel permeation chromatography. The polymers prepared were evaluated as antioxidants for the optimum formulated grease G4. The study revealed that the itaconyl m‐phenylene amide polymer was a weak antioxidant, while itaconyl bisaniline‐ and itaconyl‐o‐tolidine amide polymers showed good anti‐oxidation property.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Yujuan Zhang, Yaohua Xu, Yuangbin Yang, Shengmao Zhang, Pingyu Zhang and Zhijun Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize oil-soluble copper (Cu) nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulfur modifier and investigate its tribological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize oil-soluble copper (Cu) nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulfur modifier and investigate its tribological properties as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the anti-oxidation properties of these nanoparticles, two kinds of surface modifiers, oleic acid and oleylamine were used simultaneously. The morphology, composition, structure and thermal properties of as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. The tribological properties of as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles as an additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester.

Findings

It has been found that an as-synthesized Cu nanoparticle has a size of 2-5 nm and can be well dispersed in organic solvents. Tribological properties evaluation results show that as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles possess excellent anti-wear properties as an additive in liquid paraffin. The reason lies in that as-synthesized surface-capped Cu nanoparticles are able to deposit on sliding steel surface and form a low-shearing-strength protective layer thereon, showing promising application as an environmentally acceptable lubricating oil additive, owing to its free phosphorus and sulfur elements characteristics.

Originality/value

Oil-soluble surface-modified Cu nanoparticles without phosphorus and sulfur were synthesized and its tribological properties as lubricating oil additives were also investigated in this paper. These results could be very helpful for application of Cu nanoparticles as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Penghao Qi, Shijian Wang, Jing Li, Yue Li and Guangneng Dong

The purpose of this study is to reduce the use of Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates (ZDDP) and improve the frictional properties and thermal oxidation stability of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to reduce the use of Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates (ZDDP) and improve the frictional properties and thermal oxidation stability of Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) grease by adding antioxidant additives. The addition of antioxidants can reduce the consumption of ZDDP as an antioxidant, thus improving the anti-wear efficiency of ZDDP and reducing the excess phosphorus element in the grease.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an antioxidant with good comprehensive performance was selected from several antioxidants by tribological tests and high-temperature tests. Then, the effect of its combination additive with ZDDP on PFPE grease was investigated. The anti-wear property, anti-friction property, thermal oxidation stability and extreme pressure property of greases containing different proportions of ZDDP and antioxidant were tested by four-ball tester and synchronous thermal analyzer (STA). The effects of additives on properties of grease were analyzed by SEM, EDS, LSCM, XPS and FT-IR.

Findings

The research shows that 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) can be used as an antioxidant in combined additives to reduce the antioxidant reactions of ZDDP, thus improving the anti-wear efficiency of ZDDP and further enhancing the anti-wear performance of the grease. Moreover, BHT and ZDDP have a synergistic effect on the high temperature performance of the PFPE grease due to their different antioxidant mechanisms.

Social implications

In this paper, the problems related to PFPE grease are studied, which has a certain guiding effect on the industrial application of fluorine grease and the related formulation design.

Originality/value

In this paper, the properties of PFPE grease under different lubricating condition were studied. The synergistic lubrication effect of antioxidant and ZDDP are discussed. It provides experimental and theoretical support for reducing the content of ZDDP and improving the performance of additives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Xiangqiong Zeng, Hongling Yi, Hua Wu, Jing Li, Tianhui Ren, Weimin Liu and Zhongyi He

This paper seeks to study the tribological properties, corrosion inhibition properties and action mechanism of two triazine‐containing disulfides, TOSS and TOMA, as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to study the tribological properties, corrosion inhibition properties and action mechanism of two triazine‐containing disulfides, TOSS and TOMA, as additives in combustion engine base oil (5CST); those properties of an alkyl disulfide dodecyl disulfide and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) were also evaluated for comparison to discover whether these additives could be used as potential substitute candidates for ZDDP.

Design/methodology/approach

Their tribological performances were evaluated using a four‐ball machine. The worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Findings

The three additives have good load‐carrying capacity and corrosion inhibition properties comparable with those of ZDDP. The anti‐wear properties of the triazine‐containing disulfides TOSS and TOMA are good but a little inferior to those of ZDDP. The friction‐reducing performances of the additives are better than those of ZDDP. The XPS results show that absorption and tribochemical reactions occur to generate a complex boundary lubrication films comprising inorganic sulfate, sulfide, iron oxide and organic nitrogen, and sulfur‐containing compounds.

Research limitations/implications

The anti‐oxidation properties are still to be estimated, and the synergistic effectiveness with other additives could be demonstrated.

Practical implications

These additives are good extreme pressure and anti‐wear additives in combustion engine base oil and, through further modification of molecular structure or combination with other additives, they may be a potential replacement for ZDDP.

Originality/value

To reduce the cost, the products synthesized were not finely separated. Their tribological properties as additives in the widely used combustion engine base oil were first investigated and results indicate that they show excellent performances.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Hui Cen, Ardian Morina and Anne Neville

Ageing has been known to affect the performance of lubricants. However, there is a lot of debate as to whether ageing is beneficial or detrimental to the wear performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Ageing has been known to affect the performance of lubricants. However, there is a lot of debate as to whether ageing is beneficial or detrimental to the wear performance of lubricants.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of ageing on the viscosity, total acid number and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy information of a series of lubricants. The tribological performance (friction and wear) of the aged lubricants is also studied, followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on the selected post-test samples to study the tribochemical features of the tribofilm.

Findings

The results show that ageing has a different impact on lubricants and tribological performances based on the physical and chemical properties.

Originality/value

These findings will be compared with the research on the role of water in lubricant ageing (Part II of this study).

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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