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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Elok Zubaidah, Raida Amelia Ifadah, Umi Kalsum, Diana Lyrawati, Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri, Ignatius Srianta and Philippe J. Blanc

This paper aims to study the anti-diabetes activity of the Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the anti-diabetes activity of the Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Design/methodology/approach

The juices of snake fruits of Suwaru, Madura, Pondoh and Bali cultivars were fermented for 14 days. Anti-diabetes activity of the products was analyzed. Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into six experimental groups, i.e. four groups of the diabetic rats treated with the Kombucha, plus the normal group and diabetic control group. The Kombucha were orally administered to the streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats at 5 mL/kg body weight per day during the 28-day experiment. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oxidative stress indices (superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity and Malondialdehyde [MDA] level) and lipid profile of the blood plasma were measured. The pancreas was used for immunohistochemical study and β-cells quantification. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Fisher test using Minitab version 16.0.

Findings

FPG of the diabetic rats treated with the Kombucha (110.3-189.3 mg/dL) was significantly lower (p = 0.000) than the diabetic control group (413.3 mg/dL). Those were in line with the number of pancreatic β-cells of 42.1 in diabetic rats that lower (p = 006) than those in treated the diabetic rats (61.2-73.5). The treated diabetic rats had lower oxidative stress (SOD activity: 20.9-44.6 unit/100 µL with p = 0.000; MDA level: 0.37-0.48 ng/100 µL with p = 0.000) than those in the diabetic rats (SOD activity: 18.7 unit/100µL; MDA level: 0.84 ng/100 µL). The treated diabetic rats also showed better lipid profile than those in the diabetic control rats. There were cultivar differences, and the Suwaru and Madura snake fruit Kombucha demonstrated the most potential for diabetes management.

Originality/value

This is the first study on in vivo anti-diabetes activity of snake fruit Kombucha prepared from different snake fruit cultivars.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Naymul Karim and Jitbanjong Tangpong

For the prevention and cure of disease, patient use various types of chemical and drug agents. Along with their curative effect, almost all drugs have some destructive…

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1742

Abstract

Purpose

For the prevention and cure of disease, patient use various types of chemical and drug agents. Along with their curative effect, almost all drugs have some destructive effects and side-effects. Due to the minimal and/or none of unwanted side-effect, recently, the use of herbal remedy as the drug of choice becomes the preference choice. The mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, contains various types of polyphenols. It has been used as a traditional medicine from the ancient times till present days. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the biological properties of mangosteen in relation to health promotion effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Several research papers from well-known database (such as PubMed, Google scholar, Scopus and Sciencedirect) were reviewed without considering publication-times to understand the biological properties of mangosteen.

Findings

Mangosteen and its xanthone exerted diverse biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, anti-bacteria, anti-fungal, anti-malaria, anticancer and anti-diabetes.

Originality/value

Based on these studies, mangosteen is beneficial dietary supplement of overall human health.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Justin Paul and Pragya Bhawsar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rationale and synergies of a Japanese firm's acquisition of India's leading pharmaceutical firm, Ranbaxy, and to answer the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rationale and synergies of a Japanese firm's acquisition of India's leading pharmaceutical firm, Ranbaxy, and to answer the following pertinent questions: could Ranbaxy have been able to survive and succeed, had the firm not gone for this strategic sale to a foreign firm? What is the rationale for this strategic sale immediately after undertaking many major acquisitions during the previous two‐year period? For what strategic reasons did a Japanese firm pay a premium price for this international acquisition?

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory method was used in this study to analyze the rationale and synergies of the acquisition. The method of case writing has been followed as a design (case situation first, then goes back to the past, then comes back to the current situation).

Findings

The findings confirm that Ranbaxy got a premium price for agreeing to be acquired for their share (much higher price than the market price). Japanese firm Dai‐Ichi got greater market access and control of Ranbaxy, which were driving factors for them to pay a higher share price for Ranbaxy.

Originality/value

This original study gives insight into the points to be taken into consideration while thinking about international acquisitions.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Ishawu Iddrisu, Ibok Oduro, Marina Aferiba Tandoh and Reginald Adjetey Annan

The purpose of this paper was to synthesis all primary evidence relevant to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion. Dandelion leaf and root have been used extensively for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to synthesis all primary evidence relevant to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion. Dandelion leaf and root have been used extensively for its medicinal and health benefits since hundreds of years ago. This systematic review was conducted to gather scientific evidence that are available with regards to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion leaf and root.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, BioMed, PLUSONE and Cochrane databases between June 6, 2013 and June 30, 2013. Manual search was also done on books and journals in the KNUST library and its electronic database for possible documented effects of dandelion leaf or root on diabetic patients. Key words “dandelion”, “Taraxacum”, “dandelion and diabetes”, “Taraxacum officinale”, “Taraxacum and diabetes”, “dandelion and hypoglycemia” and “dandelion and hyperglycemia” were used in the search.

Findings

The search yielded 713 papers, and after the removal of duplicates and papers not relevant to this review, 20 papers were accepted for the review. These included studies conducted in humans and animals (rats and mice). Among the 20 studies reviewed, only 1 study examined and reported a positive hypoglycemic effect of dandelion on diabetic rats.

Research limitations/implications

The review only considered published papers and might have left out some unpublished research works.

Practical implications

The results of this review suggest paucity of data available on the use of dandelion in the treatment/management of diabetes. There is the need for well-designed clinical trials to ascertain the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion.

Social implications

The consumption of dandelion by type 2 diabetic patients to treat or manage their blood glucose has not been clinically proven to be effective, as shown by the review.

Originality/value

The paper provides a clear picture of the evidence available in the use of dandelion as an anti-diabetic herb, and this provides some preliminary data for the conduct of a clinical research on it.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Israel Olusegun Otemuyiwa, Mary Funmilayo Williams and Steve Adeniyi Adewusi

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate…

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1927

Abstract

Purpose

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced diseases; this therapeutic activity would depend on the amount of phenolics that is soluble and the amount that is absorbed and available for metabolic activity when consumed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of phenolics and antioxidant activity of some health tea and also to study the effect of addition of sugar and milk on in-vitro availability of phenolics in tea, cocoa and coffee drinks.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven brands of health tea, two brands of cocoa drink, one brand each of coffee, powdered milk and sugar were selected. The tea samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, total phenol and antioxidant activity using Folin–Ciocalteau and 202-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil 28DPPH-29-20 reagents. In-vitro simulated digestion modeling stomach and small intestine were carried out on tea infusion, coffee and cocoa drinks with or without sugar, and phenolic availability was analyzed.

Findings

The result indicated that pH, titratable acidity and total phenolics ranged from 4.5 to 5.6, 0.167 to 0.837 (as maleic acid) and 1.15 to 1.17 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, respectively. Black tea recorded the highest phenolic content, in-vitro phenolic availability and antioxidant activity. Addition of sugar to black tea and chocolate drink caused a significant decrease in the in-vitro available phenolics, while the addition of milk leads to a significant enhancement.

Research limitations/implications

The data obtained in this study can be used nutritionally and commercially to show the impact of adding sugar or milk on the content of phenolics and their bioavailability in-vitro. The study justifies the claim that tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced health defects.

Practical implications

Assessment of antioxidant activity of food should not be based only on the content of total phenolics but on the amount that is bioavailable in the body system when the food is consumed.

Social implications

Consumption of tea, cocoa and coffee drinks with milk and sugar have been found to enhance or inhibit phenolics. Therefore, the optimum level of these additives should be determined if the drinks were meant for therapeutic purposes.

Originality/value

Results obtained may provide some useful information for considering the bioavailability of phenolics present in tea and beverages in view of consumption/digestion in our body as well as interference of sugar and milk as the additives.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Stephanie Slater, Stan Paliwoda and Jim Slater

This paper examines the behaviour of Japanese pharmaceutical corporations in the light of recent merger activity, questioning strategic momentum theory given the…

Abstract

This paper examines the behaviour of Japanese pharmaceutical corporations in the light of recent merger activity, questioning strategic momentum theory given the particularly significant influence of culture on the decision‐making process in this market. The international performance of Japan’s pharmaceutical industry has been poor; therefore, we examine the regional orientation of the top global pharmaceutical TNCs, inquiring as to why there has not been greater convergence among Triad countries. Irrespective of cultural differences, this industry has been slow to respond to international macro change, but mergers, acquisitions, and other convergence strategies are now being observed.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

S. Sarkar

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic…

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2521

Abstract

Purpose

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic properties and can be the most suitable probiotic carrier. Key factors for consumer’s inclination towards functional foods are increased awareness for healthy foods because of health deterioration resulting from busy lifestyles, growing healthcare cost and the aspiration for an improved quality life in later years. Yoghurt is still not consumed in certain parts of the world because of a lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt and further people are not aware of the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption. In this study an attempt has been to project probiotic yoghurt as a functional food in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and their behavior in association with diverse probiotic cultures. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures in association with probiotics and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with fortification of minerals and vitamins or inclusion of probiotic cultures. Diversity in biochemical behavior yoghurt cultures in association with different probiotic cultures has been reported. Conjugated application of probiotics with yoghurt cultures would result in a product with enhanced functional properties to extend health benefits.

Originality/value

Inclusion of probiotic cultures in yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt, thus providing necessary nutrients, improving health and preventing or reducing nutrition-related diseases. Regular intake of probiotic yoghurt is suggested for healthy lifestyles, as it will help in retaining their health and reduce the potentially long-term risk of disease. Food industries can have profit-driven business by projecting the probiotic yoghurt as a functional food.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Seok-Tyug Tan and Seok-Shin Tan

Non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases have become a major health concern globally. As literature claims that…

Abstract

Purpose

Non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases have become a major health concern globally. As literature claims that frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables can delay the onset of type 2 diabetes and its complications, this paper aims to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic properties in five types of non-leafy vegetables (pumpkin, sweet potato, bitter gourd, onion and lady’s finger), which are commonly available in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles were identified through several main search engines, including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Taylor and Francis Online, EDS, Wiley, ScienceDirect and Scopus. The search was limited to selected keywords to refine the outcome.

Findings

All the five types of non-leafy vegetables demonstrate hypoglycemic properties to some extent. Emerging findings indicate that there are several phytonutrients in the non-leafy vegetables contributing to the hypoglycemic effects. To date, the underlying mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, although a number of potential mechanisms of action have been proposed in the literature.

Originality/value

This review provides some insights into the hypoglycemic properties in non-leafy vegetables. In addition, phytonutrients that are responsible for the hypoglycemic effects and their mechanism of action are also highlighted.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Varun Mahajan

This paper aims to present structural changes and trade competitiveness in Indian pharmaceutical industry in pre and post product patent regime. The study shows the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present structural changes and trade competitiveness in Indian pharmaceutical industry in pre and post product patent regime. The study shows the impact of product patent on market structure, ownership, trade, revealed comparative advantage, R&D and mergers and acquisitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on secondary data and extensive relevant conceptual and empirical literature review.

Findings

The study finds that this oligopoly Indian dominant pharmaceutical industry has many challenges ahead such as in R&D expenditure, patent expiration of many major drugs manufactured in Ireland, growing competition in generic global market, bulk drugs dependence on China, rise in the number of M&As, rising costs of new drug discovery and tightening safety and efficacy testing requirements. The smaller firms are likely to act as the contract manufacturers for medium and bigger companies at a lower value chain. The Normalised Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA) index was calculated for top exporters of pharmaceutical. It was found that NRCA index of IPI has shown deterioration from 1996 to 2005 and thereafter, improvement except in the year 2009. Switzerland, Belgium and Ireland are the top three countries in NRCA index, which are followed by Germany, the UK and France.

Originality/value

It attempts to capture recent trends in market structure, comparative advantage indices, R&D, trade, M&A and ownership, especially in new IPR regime. There is a dearth of studies providing detailed analyses of India’s comparative advantage vis-a-vis other leading exporters of pharmaceutical products in the world. The paper would be of value to practitioners and scholars interested in structural changes of IPI, especially in product patent regime. The findings have significant implications for managers and government for future policymaking.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Allan Ya-Huan Wu, Victoria Janine Little and Brian Low

This paper aims to increase understanding of how firms can more effectively identify valuable and profitable innovations in the pharmaceutical industry and to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to increase understanding of how firms can more effectively identify valuable and profitable innovations in the pharmaceutical industry and to identify the issues and challenges posed by current managerial decision-making practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a single project is presented: a drug in-licensing decision made by a team of three managers in a large Australian pharmaceutical firm. Using participant-observation, interviews and archival analysis, the authors followed the managers as they identified and evaluated 122 late-stage anti-diabetic drug variants for further development.

Findings

The managers used decision heuristics to arrive at a short list of three drugs from a choice set of 122. While the process was ostensibly rational and systematic, there was evidence of data quality issues, misleading mental models and cognitive bias. The authors concluded a high probability of accepting a poor candidate or rejecting a stronger candidate (i.e. making Type I and II errors).

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on initial market and technology evaluation stage only (i.e. not commercialization) and is a single case study design; therefore, care should be taken in generalizing to other decisions or other contexts. This paper highlights the need for further research integrating organizational decision-making and open innovation from a multi-disciplinary perspective.

Practical/implications

This paper raises awareness of potential decision-making pitfalls and includes a detailed audit framework to support improved managerial decision processes and double rather than single loop learning.

Social/implications

The findings support better decision-making and therefore supports higher quality drug selection and development, leading to improved population health outcomes.

Originality/value

Multi-disciplinary, draws attention of marketing and new product development scholars to open innovation research. It adds to knowledge about open innovation practices at the project level. It also provides an extended model of market opportunity analysis for high technology markets.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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