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Article

Michael Watson and Anthony R.T. Emery

Environmental management systems (EMS) first appeared in North America in the 1970s and are now widely used by commercial companies and other organisations in all parts of…

Abstract

Environmental management systems (EMS) first appeared in North America in the 1970s and are now widely used by commercial companies and other organisations in all parts of the developed world. Although various systems exist, the most important are ISO 14001 and the European Union's EMAS. This paper examines these systems, outlines their respective strengths and weaknesses, and discusses their varying popularity in different countries.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Michael Watson and Anthony R.T. Emery

This paper surveys the evidence that environmental auditing systems (EMSs), and the standard setting bodies represented by ISO 14001 and EMAS, have failed to meet their…

Abstract

This paper surveys the evidence that environmental auditing systems (EMSs), and the standard setting bodies represented by ISO 14001 and EMAS, have failed to meet their objectives on two counts. First, the standards will not lead to sustainability and second, they will not be any more economically efficient than the command and control approach. We begin by offering an historical overview of environmental standards and argue that the original intentions to link the environmental management standards with sustainability was abandoned during discussions. The opposing viewpoints about ISO 14001 and EMAS as market driven standards are discussed and then the degree of market penetration of the standards is examined. The costs of implementing an EMS are discussed in the context of the Swiss experience, and the costs to SMEs of EMSs outlined. Practical difficulties associated with the standards are considered, and the question asked, “Do EMSs lead to environmental improvement?”

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Anthony R.T. Emery and Michael Watson

Environmental law is relatively new, but legislation is developing rapidly. More prosecutions for environmental offences are taking place annually. Much of the legislation…

Abstract

Environmental law is relatively new, but legislation is developing rapidly. More prosecutions for environmental offences are taking place annually. Much of the legislation is based on the “command and control” approach. This approach has been criticised and market based alternatives advocated. Market failure suggests that an absolute trust in markets is misplaced. Alternative solutions to the regulatory problem have been sought in self‐disclosure. Self‐disclosure is the policy approach of the EPA and is contingent upon an environmental audit. Although this is a regulatory approach there are both legal and economic benefits accruing to firms from environmental auditing and self‐disclosure. But with the benefits come risks. The risk element has led the US legal profession to seek “evidentiary privilege”, but the EPA has rejected this.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Michael Watson and Anthony R.T. Emery

Environmental law has developed rapidly in the twentieth century, but Britain lacks an environmental code. Cost of compliance is likely to rise rapidly as the number of…

Abstract

Environmental law has developed rapidly in the twentieth century, but Britain lacks an environmental code. Cost of compliance is likely to rise rapidly as the number of statuary offences increases. Environmental legislation gives regulators the power to rectify damage caused by polluters. As a result companies need to develop effective responses. Environmental auditing (EA) is a sub‐set of corporate responsibility reporting of which there are a number of theoretical perspectives. However, ISO 14000 has recently emerged, which will determine organizations’ approaches to environmental reporting. EA imposes costs on organizations and many have found difficulty in implementing such systems. Some organizations see environmentalism as an opportunity to pursue a managerial agenda. If this is the case then EA may degenerate into a marketing tool.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part

Suleman Ibrahim

In terms of the concept of broken home as a juvenile delinquency risk factor, whilst Nigeria and Ghana are culturally different from western nations (Gyekye, 1996;…

Abstract

Purpose

In terms of the concept of broken home as a juvenile delinquency risk factor, whilst Nigeria and Ghana are culturally different from western nations (Gyekye, 1996; Hofstede, 1980; Smith, 2004), parental death (PDE) and parental divorce (PDI) have been previously taken-for-granted as one factor, that is ‘broken home’. This paper aims to deconstruct the singular model of ‘broken home’ and propose a binary model – the parental death and parental divorce hypotheses, with unique variables inherent in Nigerian/Ghanaian context.

Methodology/approach

It principally deploys the application of Goffman’s (1967) theory of stigma, anthropological insights on burial rites and other social facts (Gyekye, 1996; Mazzucato et al., 2006; Smith, 2004) to tease out diversity and complexity of lives across cultures, which specifically represent a binary model of broken home in Nigeria/Ghana. It slightly appraises post-colonial insights on decolonization (Agozino, 2003; Said, 1994) to interrogate both marginalized and mainstream literature.

Findings

Thus far, analyses have challenged the homogenization of the concept broken home in existing literature. Qualitatively unlike in the ‘West’, analyses have identified the varying meanings/consequences of parental divorce and parental death in Nigeria/Ghana.

Originality/value

Unlike existing data, this paper has contrasted the differential impacts of parental death and parental divorce with more refined variables (e.g. the sociocultural penalties of divorce such as stigma in terms of parental divorce and other social facts such as burial ceremonies, kinship nurturing, in relation to parental death), which helped to fill in the missing gap in comparative criminology literature.

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Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

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Article

R.G.B. Fyffe

This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of…

Abstract

This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of industrial and economic democracy, which centres around the establishment of a new sector of employee‐controlled enterprises, is presented. The proposal would retain the mix‐ed economy, but transform it into a much better “mixture”, with increased employee‐power in all sectors. While there is much of enduring value in our liberal western way of life, gross inequalities of wealth and power persist in our society.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Emery R. Eaves, Ricky L. Camplain, Monica R. Lininger and Robert T. Trotter II

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use among people incarcerated in a county jail.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use among people incarcerated in a county jail.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was administered to 199 individuals incarcerated in a Southwest county jail as part of a social-epidemiological exploration of converging comorbidities in incarcerated populations. Among 96 participants with complete ACEs data, the authors determined associations between individual ACEs items and a summative score with methamphetamine (meth), heroin, other opiates and cocaine use and binge drinking in the 30 days prior to incarceration using logistic regression.

Findings

People who self-reported use of methamphetamine, heroin, other opiates or cocaine in the 30 days prior to incarceration had higher average ACEs scores. Methamphetamine use was significantly associated with living with anyone who served time in a correctional facility and with someone trying to make them touch sexually. Opiate use was significantly associated with living with anyone who was depressed, mentally ill or suicidal; living with anyone who used illegal street drugs or misused prescription medications; and if an adult touched them sexually. Binge drinking was significantly associated with having lived with someone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic.

Social implications

The findings point to a need for research to understand differences between methamphetamine use and opiate use in relation to particular adverse experiences during childhood and a need for tailored intervention for people incarcerated in jail.

Originality/value

Significant associations between methamphetamine use and opiate use and specific ACEs suggest important entry points for improving jail and community programming.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article

There is much to justify the old “ saw ” that what is one man's food may be another man's poison. Even among healthy individuals this holds true; and it is explained by a…

Abstract

There is much to justify the old “ saw ” that what is one man's food may be another man's poison. Even among healthy individuals this holds true; and it is explained by a peculiarity of constitution attaching to some individuals that may be termed, in non‐technical language, idiosyncrasy.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Abstract

Details

Delivering Victory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-603-5

Content available
Book part

Peter Boxall, Meng-Long Huo, Keith Macky and Jonathan Winterton

High-involvement work processes (HIWPs) are associated with high levels of employee influence over the work process, such as high levels of control over how to handle…

Abstract

High-involvement work processes (HIWPs) are associated with high levels of employee influence over the work process, such as high levels of control over how to handle individual job tasks or a high level of involvement at team or workplace level in designing work procedures. When implementations of HIWPs are accompanied by companion investments in human capital – for example, in better information and training, higher pay and stronger employee voice – it is appropriate to talk not only of HIWPs but of “high-involvement work systems” (HIWSs). This chapter reviews the theory and practice of HIWPs and HIWSs. Across a range of academic perspectives and societies, it has regularly been argued that steps to enhance employee involvement in decision-making create better opportunities to perform, better utilization of skill and human potential, and better employee motivation, leading, in turn, to various improvements in organizational and employee outcomes.

However, there are also costs to increased employee involvement and the authors review the important economic and sociopolitical contingencies that help to explain the incidence or distribution of HIWPs and HIWSs. The authors also review the research on the outcomes of higher employee involvement for firms and workers, discuss the quality of the research methods used, and consider the tensions with which the model is associated. This chapter concludes with an outline of the research agenda, envisaging an ongoing role for both quantitative and qualitative studies. Without ignoring the difficulties involved, the authors argue, from the societal perspective, that the high-involvement pathway should be considered one of the most important vectors available to improve the quality of work and employee well-being.

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