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This paper seeks to investigate ethnic disadvantages in the UK labour market in the last three decades. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on data from the most…
This paper seeks to investigate ethnic disadvantages in the UK labour market in the last three decades. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on data from the most authoritative government surveys, the gross and net differences in employment status and class position between minority ethnic and White British men covering 34 years (1972‐2005) are analysed.
White British and White Other men were generally advantaged in employment and in access to professional and managerial (salariat) jobs. White Irish men were making steady progress, and have now caught up with the White British. Black men were much more likely to be unemployed in recession years but progress is discernible with Black Caribbeans approaching, and Black Africans frequently outperforming, the White British in gaining access to the salariat. Indian and Chinese men were behind the White British in employment but little different in access to the salariat. Pakistani/Bangladeshi men were most disadvantaged in both respects.
This is the most systematic research in this area so far, using the most authoritative data and covering such a long period.
The Labour Party has produced ambitious new nationalization plans for British Industry. Although the controversial plan to take 25 major companies into State ownership has been scrapped, Labour leaders are still debating what to nationalize and when. Andrew Roth reports.
In the literature on the relationship between class of origin and educational attainment, the typical conclusion is that class inequality was stable over the last century…
In the literature on the relationship between class of origin and educational attainment, the typical conclusion is that class inequality was stable over the last century, and the attempts at egalitarian reform thus proven ineffective. The conclusion turns out to depend on the choice of statistical measure, in this case loglinear measures of association. Also linear measures of association give similar results. If instead, measures of inequality are used, the contrasting conclusion of a strong reduction in the class bias in recruitment to higher education emerges.
As the provision of higher education has increased over time, the trends in the results of these three measures differ. It is argued that it is measures of inequality that capture inequality in the allocation of higher education or bias in the allocation mechanisms. The argument in favor of using loglinear measures has been the special property of “margin insensitivity” attributed to them. It has also been suggested that they capture bias in the allocation mechanism, which may develop in a way different from the trend in the inequality of the allocation outcome. It is argued that neither claim is tenable.
Volume 6 Number 2 of Employee Relations contains two articles of interest. In the first Cary L. Cooper writes on “Where Women are Going” in which he outlines some of the problems facing women managers, along with more optimistic evidence from a company known as F International which employs 90% women, and has been very successful in financial terms. In the second article, Elizabeth Goodman and Derek Torrington discuss “The Equal Pay Act (UK) — The State of the Law”. The decision of the European Court against the UK led to the introduction of the Equal Pay (Amendment) Regulations 1983, which came into effect in January 1984.
The purpose of this paper is draw together the different explanations of low attention advertising effects in the related, yet traditionally separate, paradigms of low…
The purpose of this paper is draw together the different explanations of low attention advertising effects in the related, yet traditionally separate, paradigms of low involvement processing and mere exposure effects. Further to this, the paper aims to integrate these perspectives into a more holistic theoretical framework for researching and explaining low attention advertising effects.
A critical review of the consumer literature in the related areas of low involvement processing and mere exposure effects is undertaken. This reveals very different explanations of the psychological processes that underpin research within these paradigms, and gives rise to a conceptual problem in the understanding of how advertising creates effects under conditions of low attention.
This paper argues that these two streams of research should not be seen as competing theories, however, but that collectively they explain the different routes by which advertising creates effects under conditions of low attention. Specifically, the paper proposes an integrated model of advertising effects that identifies two distinct routes to the creation of advertising effects under conditions of low attention. This model is founded on the notion that mere exposure effects are essentially driven by perceptual processes, whilst low involvement processing is almost universally seen to be underpinned by conceptual processes.
As the two routes incorporate different psychological processes, it is argued that such a distinction gives rise to important implications for advertising design and research. These are discussed in detail.
This paper draws together the various strands of research from related, yet traditionally separate, fields of research and provides a framework in which to develop further empirical and theoretical work into low attention advertising effects.
The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual…
The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual realities and the future, potential, best possible conditions of general stable equilibrium which both pure and practical reason, exhaustive in the Kantian sense, show as being within the realm of potential realities beyond any doubt. The first classical revolution in economic thinking, included in factor “P” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of a model of ideal conditions of stable equilibrium but neglected the full consideration of the existing, actual conditions. That is the main reason why, in the end, it failed. The second modern revolution, included in factor “A” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of the existing, actual conditions, usually in disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium (in case of stagnation) and neglected the sense of right direction expressed in factor “P” or the realization of general, stable equilibrium. That is the main reason why the modern revolution failed in the past and is failing in front of our eyes in the present. The equation of unified knowledge, perceived as a sui generis synthesis between classical and modern thinking has been applied rigorously and systematically in writing the enclosed American‐British economic, monetary, financial and social stabilization plans. In the final analysis, a new economic philosophy, based on a synthesis between classical and modern thinking, called here the new economics of unified knowledge, is applied to solve the malaise of the twentieth century which resulted from a confusion between thinking in terms of stable equilibrium on the one hand and disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium on the other.
In the matter of food purity and control Hospital Catering Services have been outside the law, a privileged position where the general law of food and drugs have never applied and the modern regulatory control in food hygiene has similarly not applied. In the eyes of the general public hospital catering standards have always been high above the general run of food preparation. As the NHS continued, complaints began gradually to seep out of the closed community, of dirt in the kitchens and prevalent hygiene malpractices. The general standard for most hospitals remained high but there were no means of dealing with the small minority of complaints which disgusted patients and non‐cater‐ing staff, such as insect and rodent infestations, and an increase in the frequency of food poisoning outbreaks.
Sighs of relief in the Cabinet. Edward Heath has told his Top Team that they are safe from the axe, barring accidents, for at least another year. The Prime Minister, operating under the dictum that his ministers must be given time to achieve results in their departments, has decided against a major Cabinet re‐shuffle until the end of the Conservatives' second parliamentary session—the autumn of 1972.