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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Alan M. Saks, Jamie A. Gruman and Qian Zhang

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much less attention has been given to organization engagement, which is a distinct but related target of employee engagement. In this paper, we review the research on organization engagement and identify how it has been measured, its antecedents and consequences and how it compares to job engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a narrative review of 40 studies that have measured organization engagement. Most of these studies have been published in the last five years, and they come from 20 different countries. The majority of studies also measured job or work engagement.

Findings

Most studies used Saks' (2006) measure of organization engagement. Many antecedents have been found to be related to organization engagement; however, those most often studied and consistently related to organization engagement are organizational-related resources such as perceived organizational support (POS), justice perceptions, corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizational structural factors, organizational climate and HR practices. Organization engagement has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), job performance and organizational performance and negatively related to intention to quit. Organization engagement has also been found to partially or fully mediate the relationship between antecedents and consequences. In comparison to job engagement, organization engagement scores tend to be lower, and there are meaningful differences in the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and job engagement. A number of studies found that organization engagement was more strongly related to several of the consequences than job engagement.

Practical implications

The results of this review indicate that organization engagement is as important if not more important than job engagement when it comes to its relationship to some of the consequences of employee engagement. Organizations should include a measure of organization engagement in employee surveys and focus on improving organization engagement by providing a supportive work environment, ensuring that employees have positive perceptions of justice, increasing CSR initiatives, providing a variety of human resources (HR) practices and improving organizational climate.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first comprehensive review of research on organization engagement and offers a new model of the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and compares organization engagement to job engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Alan M. Saks

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement…

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3174

Abstract

Purpose

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to try and address some issues that have arisen during the last ten years and to assess the generalizability of his findings and model using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Additional analyses was conducted using the data from Saks (2006) including measures of each job characteristic, the use of the UWES measure of work engagement, and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement. In addition, a review of engagement research was conducted as well as research that used Saks’ (2006) measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Findings

The results indicate that skill variety is the main job characteristic that predicts job engagement. The results of the analysis using the UWES measure of work engagement found that job characteristics and perceived organizational support are significant predictors of work engagement, and work engagement predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and intentions to quit and mediates the relationship between the antecedents and the consequences. Similar results were found using the single-item measures of job engagement and organization engagement. A review of the engagement literature indicates general support for the Saks (2006) model of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and for his measures of job and organization engagement. A revised and updated model is provided with additional antecedents and consequences.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations can drive employee engagement by focusing on skill variety as well as providing social support, rewards and recognition, procedural and distributive fairness, and opportunities for learning and development. In addition, organizations can assess employee engagement more frequently and easily by using single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Originality/value

This paper provides an update and revision of the Saks (2006) model of employee engagement and suggests that the main findings are similar when using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Muhammad Rashid Saeed, Umar Burki, Raza Ali, Robert Dahlstrom and Hashim Zameer

The topic of brand personality (BP) has received extensive research attention in the last 2 decades, with a particular focus on examining its antecedents and consequences

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of brand personality (BP) has received extensive research attention in the last 2 decades, with a particular focus on examining its antecedents and consequences. This study, therefore, systematically reviews and synthesizes extant research on antecedents and consequences of BP of consumer products.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review approach is used to identify and analyze relevant studies from five major databases and a search engine. This review identified 62 articles from 43 journals published during 1997–2018. The relevant literature germane to the research objectives is extracted from these articles.

Findings

This study identifies and classifies antecedents and consequences of BP of consumer products, along with key mediators and moderators underlying these relationships. Additionally, the study reveals pertinent characteristics of BP literature, including conceptualizations, measurements, methods, theories and research settings. Finally, this study develops an integrative conceptual model and presents avenues for future research.

Practical implications

This study provides insight to practitioners that create and develop brand personalities. The study would inform managers concerning the outcomes of BP.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first systematic review that synthesizes existing empirical research on antecedents and consequences of BP of consumer products.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Alan M. Saks

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied…

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121288

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement.

Findings

Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Originality/value

This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Eko Yi Liao, Victor P. Lau, Ray Tak-yin Hui and Kaylee Hao Kong

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and theory-driven meta-analysis of work–family conflict (WFC). The authors quantitatively review the relationships…

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2229

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and theory-driven meta-analysis of work–family conflict (WFC). The authors quantitatively review the relationships between WFC and three pairs of antecedents and several consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the research model. Specifically, the authors adopt a resource-based perspective (i.e. conservation of resources (COR) theory) to investigate the relationships between three pairs of antecedents (demand/control, autonomy/hours spent at both work and family domains and role overload/flexibility) and WFC. While COR theory argues that resource loss perceptions would generate much more influential impact on individuals comparing to that of resource gain, both favourable and unfavourable antecedents, representing resource gain and resource loss, respectively, are incorporated in each pair of antecedents. This inclusion of contrary antecedents allows the authors to investigate the comparison of the relationships between the favourable antecedents – WFC relationships and the unfavourable factors – WFC relationships. In addition, the authors analyse how and to what extent WFC influences employees’ attitudes (i.e. commitment), behaviours (i.e. performance) towards both work and family, and their career consequences.

Findings

The meta-analytical findings generally support the hypotheses. Work and family demands are found positively related to WFC, while having a control at either work or family would be negatively related to WFC. Perceiving a high level of autonomy at work is negatively related to WFC, and hours spend at work has a positive relation with WFC. Role overload at both work and family are associated with WFC, while having flexibility from work schedule would be negatively related to WFC. In addition, WFC is negatively related to employee career development outcomes.

Originality/value

First, the authors adopt a resource-based view to organise both favourable and unfavourable antecedents of WFC. Second, this paper aims at extending the investigation on WFC consequences to performance at both work and family, commitment to both work and family, and employee career outcomes, because all of them are critical consequences but not fully explored in previous meta-analyses. Third, this paper has incorporated newly explored correlates of WFC (e.g. employee career development-related outcomes) and quantitatively reviewed their relationships with WFC.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Seth Ayim Gyekye and Mohammad Haybatollahi

The study tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational justice among Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320). Justice perceptions were examined in…

Abstract

The study tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational justice among Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320). Justice perceptions were examined in terms of their socio-cultural properties and demographic variables. These variables were examined in terms of their impact as antecedents and consequences of justice evaluations. Antecedents comprised work-related and personal characteristics. Consequences comprised perceived organizational support, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational safety climate, safety behavior, and accident frequency. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Mplus-7 indicated a partial mediation effect in a multi-mediation model. Work-related variables strongly and positively correlated with organizational justice, and were generally better predictors of organizational justice than were personal characteristics. The results have implications to organizational behavior.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Reetesh K. Singh and Simple Sethi Arora

The purpose of this paper is to study the adoption of balanced scorecard (ABSC) as performance management system (PMS). It also proposes a framework for empirically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the adoption of balanced scorecard (ABSC) as performance management system (PMS). It also proposes a framework for empirically validating the antecedents and consequences of the ABSC as PMS.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the extensive review of BSC literature, the antecedents and consequences factors of BSC adoption as PMS are explored. A conceptual model is derived which hypothesises the relationship between the antecedents and consequences of the ABSC. The data collected by surveying perception of 128 bank employees is empirically tested. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the proposed measurement model, and hypothesised relationships are tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings confirmed the hypothesised conceptual model. They indicate that top management involvement and interdepartmental communication are the two prime antecedent factors which significantly lead to ABSC as PMS. In addition to this, the findings validate a strong causal relationship between ABSC and three consequence factors, namely, employees’ behaviour, organisational capabilities and perceived performance.

Research limitations/implications

The current study broadens the understanding of the notion of BSC as PMS in a considerable manner. It overcomes the inadequacy of the previous studies which failed to explore the antecedents and consequences of ABSC in a comprehensive way. The studies’ key limitation is that it is based on the perception of employees which can be overcome by using multiple methods to collect data in future studies.

Originality/value

The current study makes a significant contribution to the BSC literature. It is a first of its kind study to provide empirical validation to the conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of the ABSC as PMS. The research finding offers key implications for both researchers and practitioners.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Poonam Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sharma and Sanjeev Swami

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational politics and three levels of antecedents (i.e. organizational, work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational politics and three levels of antecedents (i.e. organizational, work environment and individual levels) and its consequents. It further aims to examine the relative importance of the three levels of antecedents in influencing employees’ POP. The study has been conducted at a central university in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework and a set of hypotheses were first developed on the basis of a review of previous studies of organizational politics (OP). A questionnaire was then developed, carrying 55 items related to eight constructs and the demographic characteristics of its respondents. Judgmental sampling was used to choose the university. The respondents were selected on the basis of convenience. Primary data were collected via a structured questionnaire from 45 faculty members at the university. The sample was made up of professors, associate professors and assistant professors from its various departments. To test the hypotheses, data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The results have indicated that all the three levels of antecedents have significant impacts on POP. The antecedents of workforce diversity (the organizational level), relationship conflict (the work environment level) and a need for power (the individual level) have a significant positive impact on POP. No relationship was found between role conflict and POP. Of the three levels of antecedents, it was observed that the organizational level contributed most significantly to POP. Of the three consequences, the intention to turnover and job anxiety were found to be positively related to POP, while organizational commitment was negatively related to it.

Practical implications

The study provides managerial insights for both organizations and managers. Workforce diversity is a primary driver of POP and it is under the purview of organizations. Thus, to control the unfavorable consequences of POP, organizations must design effective policies to manage workforce diversity. Specifically, human resource processes must be formalized. Since human managers often make decisions in favor of those who are relatively homogeneous to them (homosocial reproduction), the distribution of resources and benefits is restricted to a few people only. Those who do not get their share of organizational resources perceive such acts of homosocial reproduction to be political. If policies are formalized, people have to take decisions within the boundaries of well-defined sets of rules and procedures. Those who are not homogeneous with decision-makers (the outgroup) should get a fair share of organizational resources in such a formalized environment. They neither need to play political games to gain power, nor will they perceive the organizational processes and environment to be political. It is also suggested that managers design effective development programs for enhancing the political skills of “outgroups” and minorities. This would help them to understand how to deal with political situations. Thus, the detrimental effects of employees’ political perceptions on work-related outcomes would be reduced.

Originality/value

Although a large number of studies on the antecedents and consequents of POP have been reported, the antecedents and consequences mentioned herein have never been examined previously by a single study. Four antecedents are introduced at three levels. Furthermore, in previous research, the relationships examined have treated OP either as a dependent variable or an independent variable. However, for this paper, the authors have provided a PLS-SEM-based model, which allows for simultaneous treatment of organizational politics as an independent variable in some relationships, and as a dependent variable in other relationships.

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mellina da Silva Terres, Cristiane Pizzutti dos Santos and Kenny Basso

The purpose of this study is to address the role of high- and low-consequence exchanges in the relationship between trust and its antecedents (i.e., affective and

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1070

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address the role of high- and low-consequence exchanges in the relationship between trust and its antecedents (i.e., affective and cognitive elements) and consequences (i.e., positive WOM and search for second opinion intentions) in the context of the provision of medical services.

Design/methodology/approach

We performed a survey with 681 patients from a large hospital. The data were analyzed through a multigroup structural equation approach.

Findings

Findings show that during service encounters affective aspects have greater impact on consumer trust in situations of high-consequence than in low-consequence exchanges, while cognitive aspects have greater impact when consequences are low than when they are high. In addition, the authors found that the more severe the consequences, the greater the impact of trust on positive WOM and search for second opinion intentions.

Originality/value

This study is the first to consider the exchange consequences as an important moderator of the relationship between trust and affection and cognition elements involved in client-service provider encounters. Overall, the findings show higher importance of affective aspects (compared to cognitive aspects) for the formation of trust, in situations in which the individual perceives the consequences of their exchanges as severe.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Belén Ruiz, Juan A. García and Antonio J. Revilla

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key antecedents and consequences of bank reputation and whether their relative importance varies across countries.

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1302

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key antecedents and consequences of bank reputation and whether their relative importance varies across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 900 bank customers, representative of the national populations in the UK (500) and Spain (400), two of the countries in which the weight of the financial system on the gross domestic product is much bigger than that of other European countries. The research hypotheses were tested by conducting a multi-group analysis with covariance-based structural equation modelling.

Findings

In contrast with previous studies, it was discovered that the most important cognitive antecedent of banks’ reputation is reliability/financial strength. This study reinforces the prominence of satisfaction as a key emotional aspect of reputation. Differences between the UK and Spain were found in the impact of employer branding and corporate social responsibility. The positive effect of bank reputation on consumer behaviour (loyalty and word of mouth) and the existence of cross-country differences as regards loyalty were also confirmed.

Originality/value

This is a systematic cross-country analysis of corporate reputation which includes not only cognitive antecedents but also emotional determinants that have been repeatedly ignored. This paper sheds light on whether the antecedents and consequences of corporate reputation vary across countries. The choice of the banking sector provides a unique opportunity to observe the determinants and outcomes of corporate reputation following an unstable time in the banking sector.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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