This paper is based on a research project about inter‐firm RD collaboration which was undertaken in two phases. In the first phase, which took place between 1988 and 1990…
This paper is based on a research project about inter‐firm RD collaboration which was undertaken in two phases. In the first phase, which took place between 1988 and 1990, 27 pairs of small and large, technologically intensive firms were interviewed, all of which were in the process of RD collaboration. In the second phase, which took place approximately five years later, many of the original participants were recontacted to investigate both the fate of their original collaborations and the subsequent collaborative history of each firm. During the course of this second phase, a distinct group of small firms were identified which used long‐term collaboration as part of their innovation practice. These firms had gone through what was sometimes a fairly painful learning experience and had emerged as strategic collaborators.
A key debate about the nature and role of ecommerce centres around the question of whether it is merely an old activity in a new form, or a discontinuous process that rewrites the ideas and assumptions of the ‘old’ economy. The objective of this exploratory and qualitative study is to shed some light on this issue through the lens of business ethics. We will examine whether established ethical principles still apply to e‐commerce, or instead if the ‘rule book’ now needs to be re‐written.
The right to copyright protection is an important asset in industries which rely on individual creativity for competitiveness. Considers the role and function of UK copyright law for design protection in the furnishing fabric sector, with particular reference to the implications for introducing knowledge of the law into design training. Reports on the findings of an industry survey which investigated both the actual experience of design infringement and practitioners’ views about potential measures of improving awareness of copyright law. The increasing propensity to find copies in overseas markets is documented along with data pertaining to the sources of information on legal measures to which currently designers have recourse. It is concluded that, due to changing factors in the industry, modern design training courses need to review the educational requirements of future designers in this area.
The food and nutrient intake of 250 (135 male, 115 female) adolescent Nigerian high school students have been surveyed to determine the contributions of different food…
The food and nutrient intake of 250 (135 male, 115 female) adolescent Nigerian high school students have been surveyed to determine the contributions of different food groups to their intakes of protein, calcium and iron. Twenty‐four‐hour dietary recall technique was used to obtain details of food intake and questionnaires administered to obtain social and economic circumstances of subjects’ family. Male subjects had more energy, protein, calcium and iron intake but no significant (p < 0.05) differences when compared with females. Cereal based foods were the most important sources of dietary protein, supplying between 40‐52 per cent for all subjects and 60 per cent or more for 29 per cent of the subjects. Proportions of dietary protein from legumes, meats, vegetables and roots ranged from10‐21 per cent, 3‐13 per cent, 7‐17 per cent, 6.5‐12.9 per cent respectively. Cereals were also the most important source of dietary calcium (56.8 per cent) and iron (33.16 per cent) for most subjects. The contribution of meats and legumes however, approximate that of cereals for 36 per cent of subjects. Apart from gender, residence at home or in boarding house and the socio‐economic status of the subject’s family significantly affect the sources of dietary protein, calcium and iron.
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the determinants of owner manager financial self-confidence. In particular, it estimates the effect of bank credit…
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the determinants of owner manager financial self-confidence. In particular, it estimates the effect of bank credit rejection and financial education (FE) on the financial self-confidence of business owners.
This paper uses data from 2004 and 2008 surveys of 2,500 UK small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). An ordered probit estimation is used to measure and assess the effect of bank credit rejection and FE variables on financial self-confidence for the two periods. The authors also explore potential differences in self-confidence between males and females.
The results show that outright bank credit rejection reduces financial self-confidence among owner managers whereas partial bank credit rejection is found to help boost confidence prior to the financial crisis. There is strong evidence that FE increases financial self-confidence. Finally, the authors find no association between gender and reported self-confidence in finance.
Entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs are encouraged to explore financial literacy and knowledge with a view to increasing their financial self-confidence. This will help SMEs to deal with the banks or other finance providers more efficiently. In addition, better application procedures and information on lending criteria may help SMEs to minimize the probability of bank credit rejection. So the current study has implications for professional bodies as well. The study, however, is restricted to sole proprietor and partnership SMEs and in the UK context only.
Financial self-confidence has a progressive effect on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial venture growth. The financial self-confidence of owner managers can support their entrepreneurial capability in starting and operating one or more businesses. As entrepreneurs successfully start and operate their own businesses, they are contributing to economic development through job creation, employment and tax contribution.
This paper makes an original contribution in highlighting the usefulness of FE in boosting financial self-confidence among entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs. It is also found that the experience of bank credit rejection reduces entrepreneurs’ financial self-confidence.
In the recent decades, an increasing trend has been observed in the steps North Korea has taken to open up to tourism. The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper…
In the recent decades, an increasing trend has been observed in the steps North Korea has taken to open up to tourism. The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the influence the North Korean political ideology has on different aspects of international tourism.
Apart from the scarce academic literature, news media and internet resources, fieldwork that includes interviews with two international travel companies and a trip to North Korea contributed to gathering information from different perspectives.
It is not surprising that North Korean tourism cannot be divorced from its political context. By looking at the political influence exerted by the North Korean Government on the structure of the industry, tourism policies applied to the organization of tours and the content of tourism and marketing, this paper shows the existence of elements that remained unchanged in the last three decades, as well as new liberal elements that transform North Korea into a more open and versatile tourism destination.
Based on an analysis of primary and secondary data, this paper makes original contributions to North Korea tourism studies by investigating the influence of the political ideology on different aspects of tourism industry and on tourist experience.
In this article, the sixth in a series on microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, test results of nine programs are presented and various properties…
In this article, the sixth in a series on microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, test results of nine programs are presented and various properties and qualities of these programs are discussed. We discuss additional programs for information storage and retrieval and for text retrieval from several of the various categories which have been looked at in previous instalments. One new (secondary) type of 1SR software is defined as administrative software. The programs reviewed in this issue are BRS‐Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro‐OPC, Q&A, STN‐PFS, Strix, TINman and ZYindex. All but dtSearch and ZYindex can be regarded as primarily classical retrieval packages; Q&A boasts comprehensive administrative features as well; dtSearch and ZYindex are indexing programs. For ZYindex a new Windows version has been tested. All other programs run under MS‐DOS. For each of the nine programs about 100 facts and test results are tabulated. All the programs are individually discussed as well.