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The purpose of this paper is to ascertain primary care advanced clinical practitioners’ (ACP) perceptions and experiences of what factors influence the development and…
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain primary care advanced clinical practitioners’ (ACP) perceptions and experiences of what factors influence the development and identity of ACP roles, and how development of ACP roles that align with Health Education England’s capability framework for advanced clinical practice can be facilitated in primary care.
The study was located in the North of England. A qualitative approach was used in which 22 staff working in primary care who perceived themselves to be working as ACPs were interviewed. Data analysis was guided by Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phase method.
Five themes emerged from the data – the need for: a standardised role definition and inclusive localised registration; access to/availability of quality accredited educational programmes relevant to primary care and professional development opportunities at the appropriate level; access to/availability of support and supervision for ACPs and trainee ACPs; a supportive organisational infrastructure and culture; and a clear career pathway.
Findings have led to the generation of the Whole System Workforce Framework of INfluencing FACTors (IN FACT), which lays out the issues that need to be addressed if ACP capability is to be maximised in primary care. This paper offers suggestions about how IN FACT can be addressed.
This study aims to examine the influence of employee performance appraisal (PA) formalization on changes to one component of the employee–leadership social exchange…
This study aims to examine the influence of employee performance appraisal (PA) formalization on changes to one component of the employee–leadership social exchange relationship within the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Specifically, it builds upon extant research on human resource management within SMEs, performance appraisals and social exchange theory to consider the role of performance appraisal formalization in effecting change in the level of trust employees have in their leaders.
To test study hypotheses, this study analyzes responses to two survey waves completed by employees of a US-based SME operating within the commercial construction industry. This SME formalized the PA process in between the administration of the first and second surveys. Study data were analyzed using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression.
The results of this study suggest that the formalization of PA has a positive effect on change in trust in leadership (TIL). Study results also suggest that employee perceptions of PA utility, procedural justice and satisfaction with the PA process are positively related to changes in TIL. This study also found that the effects of employee perceptions of PA utility and procedural justice on changes in TIL are mediated by employee satisfaction with the PA process.
As a consequence of study design, the results found in this study may be limited with respect to their external validity. Researchers and practitioners are encouraged to use caution before generalizing study findings to other contexts.
This study suggests that PA formalization represents a means of increasing employee trust. Moreover, study results suggest that SME leaders hoping to increase employee TIL should be thoughtful about how they implement the PA process, paying particular attention to the usefulness of the feedback they provide and ensuring that the process of PA is viewed as being fair by employees. In doing so, SME leaders will enhance their employees’ satisfaction with the PA process, thereby increasing the trust they place in SME leadership.
This study extends research by considering the consequences of PA formalization with respect to changes in SME employee TIL. In doing so, this study heeds calls for additional research on the consequences of PA within SMEs, as well as sheds light on how PA formalization shapes the relationship between SME employees and leaders.
This paper aims to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, positive relationships at work and intent to turnover through a social exchange theory…
This paper aims to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, positive relationships at work and intent to turnover through a social exchange theory lens. The main contribution of this paper is the investigation of different types of positive workplace relationships on employee withdrawal behaviors.
A 49-item survey was developed through a review of literature related to positive workplace relationships and intent to turnover. Surveys were made available to 200 healthcare employees; 73 surveys were accurately completed and used to test a mediated model of positive relationships at work.
Positive relationships at work were found to have a mediating effect between perceived organizational support and intent to turnover. Additionally, perceived organizational support was found to have direct and indirect effects on intent to turnover.
Managers can affect employees’ intentions to turnover by improving practices that provide support to employees and encouraging positive relationships with coworkers. Additional literature related to our variables of interest suggests that employees perceive more support when their organizations offer commensurate rewards, opportunities for growth and participation in decision making.
This study speaks to those researchers and managers interested in employees’ motivations for staying in or leaving from their organizations. Turnover and related withdrawal behaviors are expensive for organizations, so discovering the factors that members value offers organizations the ability to affect their members’ intentions to turnover. Additionally, the exploration of relationships between perceived organizational support and positive relationships at work suggests that different support mechanisms play different roles in affecting organizational and individual outcomes.