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This article uses the case of paid domestic work in Los Angeles to argue that affluent and middle‐class members of U.S. society constitute important participants in the…
This article uses the case of paid domestic work in Los Angeles to argue that affluent and middle‐class members of U.S. society constitute important participants in the informal economy. In‐depth, tape‐recorded interviews conducted with thirty‐five employers of nannies and house cleaners, and survey responses of 154 Latina house cleaners and nannies shows that compliance with government regulations, as indicated by payment of Social Security, Medicare and federal tax withholdings, are rare. Affluent citizens may not directly depend on informally generated income, but as employers of paid domestic workers and nannies, they do depend on informally organized and remunerated services. Employers of paid domestic workers rely on three major narrative strategies to distance themselves from the regulations, arguing that the standards should be followed by certain categories of people (attorneys, celebrities, the very wealthy), that the regulations apply only to those employing full‐time help, and that the regulations are illegitimate because both undocumented workers and the state lack legitimacy. These rationalizations allow them to simultaneously condemn Zoe Baird and yet follow the same practices. Upgrading the occupation requires state support and the education of employers. This process would lead to greater recognition of paid domestic work as an occupation, one that merits the protections and regulatory guidelines governing other jobs.
American sociology has long been concerned with the social conditioning of American character, particularly with regard to caring for others. This interest can be traced…
American sociology has long been concerned with the social conditioning of American character, particularly with regard to caring for others. This interest can be traced to Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America (1899) in which he reflected on how democratic participation in government and voluntary associations in the 1830s shaped the American character. Tocqueville believed that participation in social institutions, and especially voluntary societies, balanced the potentially excessive individualism he observed in the United States. David Riesman's The Lonely Crowd: A Study of Changing American Character (1950) picked up similar themes in an exploration of the isolation of the individual within modern society. These concerns reached a broad audience more recently in Robert N. Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton's Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (1985) in which the authors argued that the scale had swung in favor of individualism at the expense of commitment to the social good. Robert Wuthnow (1991) addressed these issues again in Acts of Compassion: Caring for Others and Helping Ourselves, in which he explored how in volunteer work, Americans attempted to reconcile compassion with individualism. These studies, primarily focusing on white, middle‐class Americans, have laid the groundwork for an exploration of the social nature of the American character within the context of caring for others.
Relations between Indigenous women and the Australian women’s movement have never been easy. For some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women the white women’s…
Relations between Indigenous women and the Australian women’s movement have never been easy. For some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women the white women’s movement has seemed irrelevant to the real struggles in Aboriginal women’s lives, which have tended to be more politically aligned with Indigenous struggles more broadly. Many Aboriginal women have viewed white feminists as insensitive to their own role in Australia’s colonial history and the implications of this for contemporary intercultural relations. In response to such criticism, many white feminists have struggled with the challenge of effective cross cultural engagement and collaboration.
This chapter brings an intersectional analysis to bear in an effort to understand these challenges, developing a framing of agonistic processes of collective identity as a way of thinking about the potentially productive role of conflict in social movements. Through an examination of Indigenous and non-Indigenous responses to a particular policy framework, the chapter suggests that feminist interventions focussing on the negative, racist impacts of the policy have tended to neglect the gendered dimensions of the underlying problem. As a result these arguments risk neglecting (some) women’s lived experiences.
Neighbourhood environmental factors are associated with active lifestyle. Despite the considerable research that examined their relationship with elderly active lifestyle…
Neighbourhood environmental factors are associated with active lifestyle. Despite the considerable research that examined their relationship with elderly active lifestyle, the measures' reliability and validity attracted less attention. This pilot study aimed at examining the reliability and validity of eleven neighbourhood environmental factors hypothesized to promote active lifestyle among the elderly. The neighbourhood environmental factors ratings were compared from previous studies scale and the NEWS scale among young elderly residing in two cities in Malaysia. The identified items were further examined to identify their potential association with elderly active lifestyle. All the measures showed valid values except for convenience in both neighbourhoods and accessibility in Taman Meru. All items showed good-excellent reliability except for convenience in Taman Meru. All factors showed moderate-good correlations with active lifestyle except for walkability and convenience in Taman Meru, maintenance and safety in TTDI. The neighbourhood environmental factors can be used in neighbourhood and relevant surveys.
The firm performs several functions, of which innovation is one. Development of new products can be considered as an important part of this function. Based on the product…
The firm performs several functions, of which innovation is one. Development of new products can be considered as an important part of this function. Based on the product policy the firm may distinguish between the following levels of decision: (1) product item, (2) product line and (3) product mix (Kotler 1972, p. 439). Product development may take place as change in existing items, as development of new items within an existing line, but also within product classes that are new either to the firm or both to the firm and the market. It should also be pointed out that the resource requirements and the level of risk are related to the development strategy chosen by the firm. As an example, to be “first on the market” requires large R & D resources and implies high risk, while an imitating strategy will emphasise the need for efficiency in production and cost control (adapted from Douglas, Kreuger, Thoren 1969, pp. 70–72).
This study contributes to the literature on sexual harassment by explicitly modeling race as a significant predictor of sexual harassment in combination with gender and…
This study contributes to the literature on sexual harassment by explicitly modeling race as a significant predictor of sexual harassment in combination with gender and occupation, rather than regarding each demographic characteristic (i.e. age, gender, race, marital status) as though experienced separately from all others. As represented in the larger literature on sexual harassment in the workplace, the female respondents in this study report more sexual harassment than men, though men do report sexual harassment. Moreover, the gender context (i.e., whether respondent’s occupation is predominantly female or male) of occupation makes a difference for both men and women. These results reveal that women are more likely to be reporting sexual harassment based upon demographic factors in the labor market and appear to be unaffected by labor force characteristics. The men, on the other hand, report more sexual harassment based upon occupational characteristics than demographic factors.