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A national multi‐gigabit‐per‐second research and education network known as the National Research and Education Network is to be established by 1996, according to the…
A national multi‐gigabit‐per‐second research and education network known as the National Research and Education Network is to be established by 1996, according to the High‐Performance Computing Act of 1991 (P.L. 102–194) passed in December 1991. Commonly known as the NREN and referred to as the “information highway,” this electronic network is expected to provide scientific, educational, and economic benefits for the United States and to serve as the basis for an all‐encompassing National Information Infrastructure available to all citizens. The idea of the NREN began in the late 1960s in the Department of Defense and its Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) with the development of ARPANet, the first packet‐switching network. This evolved into the Internet, or Interim NREN, after the National Science Foundation (NSF) linked its national supercomputing centers with the NSFNet. The NSFNet is to be the technological backbone for the NREN, which will continue the networking begun by the Internet. Initially, the NREN is intended to interconnect researchers and resources of research institutions, educational institutions, industry, and government in every state.
Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and…
Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and empirical knowledge of the process of technological innovation and fails to acknowledge the relationship between knowledge production, transfer, and use as equally important components of the process of knowledge diffusion. This article argues that the potential contributions of high‐speed computing and networking systems will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge about the information‐seeking behavior of the members of the social system is incorporated into a new policy framework. Findings from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project are presented in support of this assertion.
This paper examines the general value to users of a range of electronic journal functions and their usefulness in the specific context of the SuperJournal Project. For the…
This paper examines the general value to users of a range of electronic journal functions and their usefulness in the specific context of the SuperJournal Project. For the evaluation of each of the functions three types of data were analysed in relation to each other and in light of other contextual data: logged data of usage, survey data on user satisfaction, and survey data on the perceived importance of the function. The analysis shows that basic browsing, printing and search make up the core functions of electronic journals; other functions, such as saving of bibliographic data, alerting, customising, links with external resources and communication, serve as peripheral functions. The usefulness of both the core functions and the peripheral functions in a specific service is influenced by various implementation factors. However, it is the realised usefulness of the core functions which determines the use of a service.
The author describes how the University of Central Lancashire has chosen to make electronic document delivery available to remote users in accordance with the requirements…
The author describes how the University of Central Lancashire has chosen to make electronic document delivery available to remote users in accordance with the requirements of the European Commission research project BIBDEL. Details are given of the information technology resources deployed to offer this service and the difficulties experienced in doing so. The library management issues contingent on offering the service operationally are then explored; among which the current imprecision of copyright legislation is held to be the most important.
The Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment (CORE), a five‐year R&D project, was one of the earliest attempts to make a substantial volume of the text and graphics from…
The Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment (CORE), a five‐year R&D project, was one of the earliest attempts to make a substantial volume of the text and graphics from previously published scholarly journals available to end‐users in electronic form, across a computer network. Since CORE dealt with material that had already gone through traditional print publication, its emphasis was on the process (and limitations) of conversion, the optimization of presentation, and use of the converted contents for readers. This article focuses on the user response to the system.
The process by which technological innovations developed in one institution are discovered, acquired, and adapted for use by another institution.
The purpose of this paper is to incorporate prior knowledge in the artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of continuous cooling transformation (CCT…
The purpose of this paper is to incorporate prior knowledge in the artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of steel, so that the model predictions become valid from materials engineering point of view.
Genetic algorithm (GA) is used in different ways for incorporating system knowledge during training the ANN. In case of training, the ANN in multi-objective optimization mode, with prediction error minimization as one objective and the system knowledge incorporation as the other, the generated Pareto solutions are different ANN models with better performance in at least one objective. To choose a single model for the prediction of steel transformation, different multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) concepts are employed. To avoid the problem of choosing a single model from the non-dominated Pareto solutions, the training scheme also converted into a single objective optimization problem.
The prediction results of the models trained in multi and single objective optimization schemes are compared. It is seen that though conversion of the problem to a single objective optimization problem reduces the complexity, the models trained using multi-objective optimization are found to be better for predicting metallurgically justifiable result.
ANN is being used extensively in the complex materials systems like steel. Several works have been done to develop ANN models for the prediction of CCT diagram. But the present work proposes some methods to overcome the inherent problem of data-driven model, and make the prediction viable from the system knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to investigate why users turn to the university library’s reference desk and whether librarians make use of the opportunity to conduct…
The purpose of this study is to investigate why users turn to the university library’s reference desk and whether librarians make use of the opportunity to conduct reference interviews to disclose any unexpressed information needs.
This paper presents the results from a qualitative exploration study where interactions between librarians and users were observed in authentic situations at the reference desk and analyzed using a modified version of Radford and Connaway’s (2013) categorization of inquiries.
Most inquiries were seemingly easy to answer and pertained to collections and procedures in the library. Lending out desk supplies accounted for a high proportion of the activity. Only a small number of requests were subject-oriented and reference interview techniques were only used in 5% of the recorded inquiries. This means that the users’ information needs were not probed in the vast majority of the interactions.
The study is exploratory and mirrors the activity that takes place in one specific library. The low number of reference interview techniques used may indicate a lack of interest in users’ information needs, which signifies a risk of the reference desk being reduced to an arena for instrumental and superficial interaction between librarians and users.
This study illustrates current developments in work at a physical library desk. Few recent studies address face-to-face interactions between librarians and users.