The study of arms control and disarmament is a subject of renewed interest in the United States. The attention of academicians, politicians, and average citizens, focused…
The study of arms control and disarmament is a subject of renewed interest in the United States. The attention of academicians, politicians, and average citizens, focused by a fear of nuclear holocaust, has turned to questions of how best to seek peace and safety in the nuclear age. Courses and programs devoted to arms control and disarmament and methods of achieving peaceful resolution of conflicts in today's world are offered at all educational levels, and the general public, aware of the necessity of being well‐informed on such an important topic, is looking for ways to obtain factual and reliable information to help sort out the conflicting claims of political spokespeople. Such material does exist and should be available to researchers, professors, students, and citizens, so that they can form opinions and attempt to influence policy on the basis of a sound understanding.
Arms control, international security, and peace are topics of growing concern among scholars. This concern is a reaction to the heightened international tensions during…
Arms control, international security, and peace are topics of growing concern among scholars. This concern is a reaction to the heightened international tensions during the past decade. Researchers are aware that their work might contribute to an understanding of the sources of conflict, and to the peaceful resolution of international issues. Interest in the field is rapidly expanding both in the United States and abroad, but there has been little agreement on the direction research should take. Research institutes, think‐tanks, and university programs around the world are devoting an increasing amount of time to the study of arms control, international security, and peace.
Discusses the 27 papers in ISEF 1999 Proceedings on the subject of electromagnetisms. States the groups of papers cover such subjects within the discipline as: induction machines; reluctance motors; PM motors; transformers and reactors; and special problems and applications. Debates all of these in great detail and itemizes each with greater in‐depth discussion of the various technical applications and areas. Concludes that the recommendations made should be adhered to.
This chapter explores the concept of market infrastructure, which is tentatively defined as a materially heterogeneous arrangement that silently supports and structures…
This chapter explores the concept of market infrastructure, which is tentatively defined as a materially heterogeneous arrangement that silently supports and structures the consummation of market exchanges. Specifically, the authors investigate the enactment of market infrastructure in the US grocery retail sector by exploring how barcodes and related devices contributed to modify its market infrastructure during the period 1967–2010. Combining this empirical case with insights from previous research, the authors propose that market infrastructures are relational, available for use, modular, actively maintained, interdependent, commercial, emergent and political. The authors argue that this conception of market infrastructure provides a powerful tool for unveiling the complex agencements and engineering efforts that underpin seemingly superficial, individual and isolated market exchanges.
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.
The focus and goal of this chapter is to systematically detail how the “cascade” system is organized and how it operates by coordinating current research. To do so, this…
The focus and goal of this chapter is to systematically detail how the “cascade” system is organized and how it operates by coordinating current research. To do so, this chapter first builds an understanding of the historical conditions that forged the “cascade” system, then turns to how the system operates – charting its affordances and limitations through others’ research – and then discusses what opportunities can be leveraged to support teachers’ work. In doing so, this chapter provides relevant information and documentation about the “cascade” system so that readers can understand how this system currently works and what is possible. Two interpretations are made from the analysis of current research. First, the “cascade” is overwrought with voices, and the participants overwhelmed; and second, the “cascade” fosters an untenable view of how people learn and what constitutes teaching. Increasingly, teachers and their education are being widely recognized as central to the fortunes of schoolchildren. In India, a significant amount of attention is being paid to teacher education more than ever before. For example, the recent 5-year planning and operations budget is being touted as the “Teacher Education Plan.” Thus, probing the existing system and its norms and practices is vital to ensuring this attention isn’t frittered away and is put toward helping teachers step up to the challenge of providing all students rich opportunities to learn.
Ruth Elwood Martin, Sue Adamson, Mo Korchinski, Alison Granger-Brown, Vivian R. Ramsden, Jane A. Buxton, Nancy Espinoza-Magana, Sue L. Pollock, Megan J.F. Smith, Ann C. Macaulay, Lara Lisa Condello and T. Gregory Hislop
Women in prison throughout the world experience higher rates of mental and physical illness compared with the general population and compared with men in prison. The paper…
Women in prison throughout the world experience higher rates of mental and physical illness compared with the general population and compared with men in prison. The paper finds no published studies that report on men or women in prison engaging in participatory health research to address their concerns about nutrition and fitness. The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot nutrition and fitness program, which resulted from a unique prison participatory health research project.
Women in prison designed, led, and evaluated a six-week pilot fitness program in a minimum/medium security women's prison. Pre- and post-program assessments included a self-administered questionnaire and body measures. Open-ended questionnaire responses illuminated the quantitative findings.
Sixteen women in prison completed the program evaluation. Weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and chest measurements decreased, and energy, sleep, and stress levels improved by the end of the program.
As a component of a participatory research project, incarcerated women designed and led a nutrition and fitness program, which resulted in improved body measures and self-reported health benefits.
Incarceration provides opportunities to engage women in designing their own health programs with consequent potential long-term “healing” benefits.
Multidisciplinary design frameworks elaborated for aeronautical applications require considerable computational power that grows enormously with the utilization of higher…
Multidisciplinary design frameworks elaborated for aeronautical applications require considerable computational power that grows enormously with the utilization of higher fidelity tools to model aeronautical disciplines like aerodynamics, loads, flight dynamics, performance, structural analysis and others. Surrogate models are a good alternative to address properly and elegantly this issue. With regard to this issue, the purpose of this paper is the design and application of an artificial neural network to predict aerodynamic coefficients of transport airplanes. The neural network must be fed with calculations from computational fluid dynamic codes. The artificial neural network system that was then developed can predict lift and drag coefficients for wing-fuselage configurations with high accuracy. The input parameters for the neural network are the wing planform, airfoil geometry and flight condition. An aerodynamic database consisting of approximately 100,000 cases calculated with a full-potential code with computation of viscous effects was used for the neural network training, which is carried out with the back-propagation algorithm, the scaled gradient algorithm and the Nguyen–Wridow weight initialization. Networks with different numbers of neurons were evaluated to minimize the regression error. The neural network featuring the lowest regression error is able to reduce the computation time of the aerodynamic coefficients 4,000 times when compared with the computing time required by the full potential code. Regarding the drag coefficient, the average error of the neural network is of five drag counts only. The computation of the gradients of the neural network outputs in a scalable manner is possible by an adaptation of back-propagation algorithm. This enabled its use in an adjoint method, elaborated by the authors and used for an airplane optimization task. The results from that optimization were compared with similar tasks performed by calling the full potential code in another optimization application. The resulting geometry obtained with the aerodynamic coefficient predicted by the neural network is practically the same of that designed directly by the call of the full potential code.
The aerodynamic database required for the neural network training was generated with a full-potential multiblock-structured code. The training process used the back-propagation algorithm, the scaled-conjugate gradient algorithm and the Nguyen–Wridow weight initialization. Networks with different numbers of neurons were evaluated to minimize the regression error.
A suitable and efficient methodology to model aerodynamic coefficients based on artificial neural networks was obtained. This work also suggests appropriate sizes of artificial neural networks for this specific application. We demonstrated that these metamodels for airplane optimization tasks can be used without loss of fidelity and with great accuracy, as their local minima might be relatively close to the minima of the original design space defined by the call of computational fluid dynamics codes.
The present work demonstrated the ability of a metamodel with artificial neural networks to capture the physics of transonic and subsonic flow over a wing-fuselage combination. The formulation that was used was the full potential equation. However, the present methodology can be extended to model more complex formulations such as the Euler and Navier–Stokes ones.
Optimum networks reduced the computation time for aerodynamic coefficient calculations by 4,000 times when compared with the full-potential code. The average absolute errors obtained were of 0.004 and 0.0005 for lift and drag coefficient prediction, respectively. Airplane configurations can be evaluated more quickly.
If multidisciplinary optimization tasks for airplane design become more efficient, this means that more efficient airplanes (for instance less polluting airplanes) can be designed. This leads to a more sustainable aviation.
This research started in 2005 with a master thesis. It was steadily improved with more efficient artificial neural networks able to handle more complex airplane geometries. There is a single work using similar techniques found in a conference paper published in 2007. However, that paper focused on the application, i.e. providing very few details of the methodology to model aerodynamic coefficients.
The US feminist art movement of the 1970s is examined through selected works written by artists, critics, and historians during the 1990s. Books, exhibition catalogues…
The US feminist art movement of the 1970s is examined through selected works written by artists, critics, and historians during the 1990s. Books, exhibition catalogues, dissertations, and articles place the movement within the broader contexts of art history and criticism, women’s history, and cultural studies. The art includes painting, drawing, collage, mixed‐media, graphics, installations, video, and performance. An increasing historical perspective allows scholars to examine the movement’s institutions and unresolved issues surrounding class, race, and sexual preference. Background is provided by an introductory essay, which summarizes the movement’s facets of protest, pedagogy, networks and professional associations, and art making while noting examples of publications and institutions that form part of the record of the movement. This article will be useful to librarians and scholars in art, women’s studies, history, sociology, and cultural studies.
Although two decades have passed since the publication of Walsh and Ungson’s (1991) seminal article on organizational memory, there has been only limited theoretical elaboration and application of this critical aspect of cognition in the strategic management literature. We remedy this gap by advancing the construct of competitive memory, which we define as a firm’s dynamic capability consisting of stored information from its past competitive interaction with a given rival that can be brought to bear on present or future competitive actions. We theorize that competitive memory is composed of both procedural and declarative elements and can be accessed automatically and deliberatively. Additionally, we suggest that competitive memory is relational: As rivals within a competitive set interact in the market, competitive memory drives not only their strategic actions, but also their expectations about their competitors. Last, competitive memory is also dynamic, which can be constructed and reconstructed over time by an organization’s enactment of its internal and external environments and by purposive memory trials with its competitive set.