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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2020

Andrei Alexander Lux, Flávio Romero Macau and Kerry Ann Brown

This paper extends entrepreneurial ecosystems theory by testing how aspects of the local business environment affect individual entrepreneurs' ability to translate their…

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2497

Abstract

Purpose

This paper extends entrepreneurial ecosystems theory by testing how aspects of the local business environment affect individual entrepreneurs' ability to translate their personal resources into firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 223 business owners across Australia. Moderation hypotheses were tested using multiple hierarchical regression and confirmed with the Preacher and Hayes (2004) bootstrapping method.

Findings

The results show that business owners' psychological capital, social capital and entrepreneurial education directly affect their individual firm performance. These positive relations are moderated by specific aspects of the business environment, such that they are stronger when the environment is more favorable.

Originality/value

This study puts individual business owners back into entrepreneurial ecosystems theory and explains how they can make the most of their personal resources, suggesting a complex interplay where one size does not fit all. Far-reaching practical implications for policymakers are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Stewart Li, Richard Fisher and Michael Falta

Auditors are required to perform analytical procedures during the planning and concluding phases of the audit. Such procedures typically use data aggregated at a high…

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181

Abstract

Purpose

Auditors are required to perform analytical procedures during the planning and concluding phases of the audit. Such procedures typically use data aggregated at a high level. The authors investigate whether artificial neural networks, a more sophisticated technique for analytical review than typically used by auditors, may be effective when using high level data.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from companies operating in the dairy industry were used to train an artificial neural network. Data with and without material seeded errors were used to test alternative techniques.

Findings

Results suggest that the artificial neural network approach was not significantly more effective (taking into account both Type I and II errors) than traditional ratio and regression analysis, and none of the three approaches provided more overall effectiveness than a purely random procedure. However, the artificial neural network approach did yield considerably fewer Type II errors than the other methods, which suggests artificial neural networks could be a candidate to improve the performance of analytical procedures in circumstances where Type II error rates are the primary concern of the auditor.

Originality/value

The authors extend the work of Coakley and Brown (1983) by investigating the application of artificial neural networks as an analytical procedure using aggregated data. Furthermore, the authors examine multiple companies from one industry and supplement financial information with both exogenous industry and macro-economic data.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Eija Koskivaara

This article gives an overview of artificial neural network (ANN) studies conducted in the auditing field. The review pays attention to application domains, data and…

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2992

Abstract

This article gives an overview of artificial neural network (ANN) studies conducted in the auditing field. The review pays attention to application domains, data and sample sets, ANN‐architectures and learning parameters. The article argues that these auditing ANN‐applications could serve the analytical review (AR) process. The summary of the findings pays attention to whether authors state that ANNs have potential to improve analytical review (AR) procedures. Furthermore, the article evaluates which are the most influential contributions and which are open ends in the field. The article makes some practical suggestions to motivate academics and practitioners to collaborate in further exploration of the potential of ANNs.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Amos Olaolu Adewusi, Tunbosun Biodun Oyedokun and Mustapha Oyewole Bello

This study assesses the classification accuracy of an artificial neural network (ANN) model. It examines the application of loan recovery probability rather than odds of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study assesses the classification accuracy of an artificial neural network (ANN) model. It examines the application of loan recovery probability rather than odds of default as the case with traditional credit evaluation models.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on 2,300 loans granted over the period 2001-2012 was obtained from the databases of Nigerian commercial banks and primary mortgage institutions. A multilayer feed-forward ANN model with back-propagation learning algorithm was developed having classified the sample into training (38 per cent), testing (41 per cent) and validation (21 per cent) sub-samples.

Findings

The model exhibits a high overall percentage classification accuracy of 92.6 per cent. It also achieves relatively low misclassification Type I and Type II errors at 6.5 per cent and 8.2 per cent, respectively. Macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product, inflation and interest rates have the strongest influence on the ANN model classification power. The result of the analysis shows that adopting odds of recovery in ANN classification models can lead to improved loan evaluation.

Originality/value

The paper is distinct from extant studies in that it presents a new dimension to loan evaluation in Nigerian lending market. To the best knowledge of the authors, the paper is among the first to explore probability of loan recovery as the basis for credit evaluation in the country.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Richard Teare, Wayne Cummings, Marsha‐Ann Donaldson‐Brown and Howard Spittle

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions and experiences of senior hotel industry practitioners in relation to business imperatives, career development and…

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933

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions and experiences of senior hotel industry practitioners in relation to business imperatives, career development and organizational learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an interview discussion format to explore the challenges, benefits and outcomes of organizational development by action learning.

Findings

The paper observes that action learning provides an effective way of retaining, developing and enabling people to realize their potential at work and that this process is wholly beneficial to the host organization.

Practical implications

The paper provides senior leader insights on the potential for learning at work and the underlying themes that enable organizations to develop as authentic learning organizations.

Originality/value

The paper reveals the benefits of embedding and cascading action learning so that participants can develop themselves and at the same time, their workplace environment.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

P. David Pearson, Mary B. McVee and Lynn E. Shanahan

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the conceptual and historical genesis of the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the conceptual and historical genesis of the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983) which has become one of the most commonly used instructional frameworks for research and professional development in the field of reading and literacy.

Design/Methodology/Approach – This chapter uses a narrative, historical approach to describe the emergence of the model in the work taking place in the late 1970s and early 1980s in reading research and educational theory, particularly at the Center for the Study of Reading at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana as carried out by David Pearson, Meg Gallagher, and their colleagues.

Findings – The GRR Model began, in part, in response to the startling findings of Dolores Durkin’s (1978/1979) study of reading comprehension instruction in classrooms which found that little instruction was occurring even while students were completing numerous assignments and question-response activities. Pearson and Gallagher were among those researchers who took seriously the task of developing an instructional model and approach for comprehension strategy instruction that included explicit instruction. They recognized a need for teachers to be responsible for leading and scaffolding instruction, even as they supported learners in moving toward independent application of strategies and independence in reading. Based in the current research in the reading field and the rediscovery of the work of Vygotsky (1978) and the descriptions of scaffolding as coined by Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1976), Pearson and Gallagher developed the model of gradual release. Over time, the model has been adapted by many literacy scholars, applied to curriculum planning, used with teachers for professional development, reprinted numerous times, and with the advent of the Internet, proliferated even further as teachers and educators share their own versions of the model. This chapter introduces readers to the original model and multiple additional representations/iterations of the model that emerged over the past few decades. This chapter also attends to important nuances in the model and to some misconceptions of the instructional model.

Research Limitations/Implications – Despite the popularity of the original GRR model developed by Pearson and Gallagher and the many adaptations of the model by many collaborators and colleagues in literacy – and even beyond – there have been very few publications that have explored the historical and conceptual origins of the model and its staying power.

Practical Implications – This chapter will speak to researchers, teachers, and other educators who use the GRR model to help guide thinking about instruction in reading, writing, and other content areas with children, youth, pre-service teachers, and in-service teachers. This chapter provides a thoughtful discussion of multiple representations of the gradual release process and the nuances of the model in ways that will help to dispel misuse of the model while recognizing its long-standing and sound foundation on established socio-cognitive principles and instructional theories such as those espoused by Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky, Anne Brown, and others.

Originality/Value of Paper – This chapter makes an original contribution to the field in explaining the historical development and theoretical origins of the GRR model by Pearson and Gallagher (1983) and in presenting multiple iterations of the model developed by Pearson and his colleagues in the field.

Details

The Gradual Release of Responsibility in Literacy Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1900

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods…

Abstract

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods have been analysed on former occasions and have been found genuine. As illustrating the slight value of analyses of previous samples may be taken the average laudatory analyses on patent or proprietary foods, drinks, or medicine. The manufacturer calculates—and calculates rightly—that the general public will believe that the published analysis of a particular specimen which had been submitted to the analytical expert by the manufacturer himself, guarantees all the samples on the market to be equally pure. History has repeatedly proved that in 99 cases out of 100 the goods found on the market fall below the quality indicated by the published analyses. Not long ago a case bearing on this matter was tried in court, where samples of cocoa supplied by the wholesale firm were distributed; but, when the retailer tried to sell the bulk of the consignment, he had repeated complaints from his customers that the samples were a very much better article than what he was then supplying. He summoned the wholesale dealer and won his case. But what guarantee have the general public of the quality of any manufacturer's goods—unless the Control System as instituted in Great Britain is accepted and applied ? Inasmuch as any manufacturer who joins the firms under the British Analytical Control thereby undertakes to keep all his samples up to the requisite standard; as his goods thenceforth bear the Control stamp; and as any purchaser can at any time submit a sample bought on the open market to the analytical experts of the British Analytical Control, free of any charge, to ascertain if the sample is up to the published and requisite standard, it is plain that a condition of things is created which not only protects the public from being cheated, but also acts most beneficially for these firms which are not afraid to supply a genuine article. The public are much more willing to buy an absolutely guaranteed article, of which each sample must be kept up to the previous high quality, rather than one which was good while it was being introduced, but as soon as it became well known fell off in quality and continued to live on its reputation alone.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Virginia Minogue, Jean Boness, Ann Brown and John Girdlestone

There are many examples of consumer involvement in NHS research but few studies have examined the impact of this on service development or the research process. This…

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4357

Abstract

Purpose

There are many examples of consumer involvement in NHS research but few studies have examined the impact of this on service development or the research process. This study, involving service user and carer researchers working alongside professional researchers, aimed to examine the development of one service user and carer research group in a mental health Trust.

Dersign/methodology/approach

The research involved a review of existing literature on consumer involvement in research, a review of user involvement in research in South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust, a survey of consumers and NHS staff in the Trust, and a skills audit and training needs analysis of consumers.

Findings

The study identified the range and extent of consumer involvement and the impact of this on consumers and the Trust. Service users and carers were involved in a range of projects, mainly on the level of consultation or collaboration. The benefits for consumers were principally on a personal level and included gaining knowledge and experience, improved sense of well‐being, self esteem, and confidence. The benefit for the Trust was in having a service user perspective and focus. However, there is a tendency to omit service users from planning and setting priorities.

Practical implications

The study pointed to the need to build the evidence base on consumer involvement in research, particularly in terms of how consumers can impact on setting research priorities and selecting appropriate methods. It identifies the need for more training for consumers and for NHS staff and for a more coherent strategy.

Originality/value

This article will be of value to anyone who is at the start or in the early stages of their journey of consumer involvement. It identifies some of the practical issues faced by consumers and staff in working collaboratively, but also points to the benefits for all the stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Helen‐Ann Brown

Clinical medical librarians stepped out of the library and joined the patient care team in the early 1970s, beginning in Kansas City, Missouri and then Hartford…

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2383

Abstract

Clinical medical librarians stepped out of the library and joined the patient care team in the early 1970s, beginning in Kansas City, Missouri and then Hartford, Connecticut. Now they are present to report the literature, take literature search requests and, most importantly, perceive information needs at Morning Report, bedside rounds, or weekly conferences. Within 24 hours or less, they return to the patient care team with literature to aid in patient planning. Clinical medical librarians also teach online searching in an evidence‐based way and help patient care team members with other research needs. In 2000, the concept of the informationist was introduced. It can begin with clinical medical librarianship and expand to this information specialist in context, being based and salaried in a clinical setting, having information‐seeking skills, knowledge of informatics and the clinical subject area. Both the clinical medical librarian and the clinical informationist contribute to better patient care, medical education and clinical research.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Christine Ann Brown, Kevin Davis and David Mayes

– The purpose of this study is to explain rationale for regulatory change in Australia and New Zealand after the global financial crisis.

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1665

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain rationale for regulatory change in Australia and New Zealand after the global financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Outline regulatory changes and relate to crisis experience and regulatory shortcomings exposed.

Findings

Regulatory change was driven primarily by need, as capital importing nations, to comply with emerging global standards, and the different approaches in both nations are also related to domestic political considerations.

Research limitations/implications

The process of regulatory change in response to the crisis is ongoing.

Practical implications

A number of areas for further improvement in financial regulation are identified.

Social implications

Costs of poor regulation and financial crises are identified.

Originality/value

A comparison of regulatory approaches in two countries dominated by the same four large banks helps understand the challenges of cross-border financial regulation cooperation.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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