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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1920

A similar parallel between function and dietary properties can be drawn in the case of the highly specialized muscle tissue on the one hand and the actively metabolizing…

Abstract

A similar parallel between function and dietary properties can be drawn in the case of the highly specialized muscle tissue on the one hand and the actively metabolizing glandular tissues on the other. The muscle tissue has dietary properties almost identical with the seed, tuber or root in all respects except its richness in protein. It lacks sufficient calcium, sodium and chlorine, fat‐soluble A, water‐soluble B, and water‐soluble C. The glandular organs such as the liver and kidney are much more nearly complete foods. Indeed, they have all the complexes which are essential for the construction of living tissue, and when supplemented with a carbohydrate, such as starch, approximate much more nearly a complete food than would a similar amount of muscle tissue with starch.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays…

Abstract

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays to be largely a matter of routine, with manufacturers as much involved and interested in maintaining a more or less settled equilibrium as the enforcement agencies. Occasionally the peace is shattered, eg, a search and recovery operation of canned goods of doubtful bacterial purity or containing excess metal contamination, seen very much as an isolated incident; or the recent very large enforcement enterprise in the marketing of horseflesh (and other substitutions) for beef. The nationwide sale and distribution of meat on such a vast scale, only possible by reason of marketing methods — frozen blocks of boneless meat, which even after thawing out is not easily distinguishable from the genuine even in the eye of the expert; this is in effect only a fraud always around in the long ago years built up into a massive illicit trade.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1971

Eric Lawson

It is now well established that vitamin D has direct action on bone, intestine, kidney, and clinicians would also include muscle. The function of vitamin D in bone is…

Abstract

It is now well established that vitamin D has direct action on bone, intestine, kidney, and clinicians would also include muscle. The function of vitamin D in bone is two‐fold. It is required for the mineralisation of bone, that is, in calcium acquisition, and also for the mobilisation of calcium into the blood. The balance of calcium between the plasma and bone is maintained by vitamin D, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. This second hormone is able to act only in the presence of vitamin D. These two effects — mobilisation of calcium from bone tissue, and absorption of the mineral from ingested food, are quite different. This is clearly shown in histological lesions produced by calcium deficiency which are distinct from those of rickets. Conversely, calcium infusions to rachitic animals and osteomalacic patients do not fully lead to normal calcification of osteoid tissue.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2018

Martina Tunegová, Eva Samková, Lucie Hasoňová, Marcela Klimešová, Aneta Marková, Robert Kala and Róbert Toman

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of chemical contaminants in animal products before and after CR entered the European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from e-databases of the SVA from 1999–2016 and sorted into categories (game animals and fish; livestock; food and raw material of animal origin) and time periods (one before entry and two after entry of CR to the EU). Analyses of the samples were categorized as “positive samples” (any presence of contaminants) and “samples above the MRL” (presence of contaminants exceeding the maximum residue levels).

Findings

Results showed a significant decrease in the number of positive findings of contaminants during the monitored years 1999–2016, especially after CR entered the EU. Most encouragingly, the number of samples that exceeded the MRL was less than 1 percent from all the tested samples of animal origin and, after entry to the EU, in one category (food and raw materials of animal origin) it was even less than 0.1 percent. Findings of banned substances indicate continued environmental contamination in CR; however, this remains a problem in most of Europe due to their extensive use in the past and slow degradation.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the occurrence of chemical contaminants and their levels in food of animal origin in view of the changing legislative requirements before and after CR entered the EU.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Keith D. Harris

This case used the interplay between individuals, firms and markets to examine how a company sustained success from its value adding activities. The theory of value…

Abstract

Theoretical basis

This case used the interplay between individuals, firms and markets to examine how a company sustained success from its value adding activities. The theory of value creation was demonstrated by the leader’s ability to configure the firm’s tangible and intangible resources to create opportunities beyond the commodity markets. Also, what matters were not just the technical processes of developing value-added products, but how the company’s culture served as a link to new products, new markets and new ventures.

Research methodology

The case was based on primary and secondary sources. The primary sources face-to-face semi-structured recorded interviews with the protagonist at the company’s headquarters. The secondary data were from the company’s website, and public information about Johnsonville Sausage LLC. Supplemental information was gathered from market research firms. No names have been disguised. The case has been classroom tested with undergraduate students in a capstone course. The author has no personal relationship with the company.

Case overview/synopsis

Kevin Ladwig, Vice President, was concerned by the expanded production of ethanol, an attractive supplement to gasoline in the USA. Because most ethanol is processed from corn, expanded production of ethanol heightened the demand for corn. Since corn is a staple feed ingredient for animals, heightened demand for corn increased the cost of Johnsonville’s raw material – hogs. In fact, the cost of feed was Johnsonville’s major economic input in animal production from farrow to finish, accounting for up to 70 percent of the total production cost of hogs. The case introduces the nexus of food and energy markets and how the “Johnsonville Way” was used to convert an old idea into an innovation.

Complexity academic level

This case is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate courses in business and agribusiness management. It would also be appropriate for courses using concepts in innovation and organizational culture.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1942

Starting at such a nutritional and health level as probably most people accept as their norm, it is now clearly possible (1) better to ensure a normally prompt development…

Abstract

Starting at such a nutritional and health level as probably most people accept as their norm, it is now clearly possible (1) better to ensure a normally prompt development of the young, (2) to induce a higher level of adult vitality and accomplishment, and (3) materially to improve the duration as well as the quality of life, through the guidance of nutritional knowledge in the everyday choice and use of food. Three questions may have suggested themselves: (1) How conclusive are the data supporting such statements as those of the preceding paragraph?; (2) What are the grounds for confidence in the human application of the finding of laboratory animal experimentation in this field?; and (3) With all due reverence for individual human lives, will a longer‐lived population be an advantage? Each of these questions is worthy of a much fuller answer than the space here available permits; and could be answered with much ampler evidence and explanation, but for the present need of extreme condensation. Statistical analysis of the objective, numerically recorded data of laboratory‐controlled experiments shows, at all stages of the life cycle, nutritional improvements upon the initial norms with measured differences so manifold greater than their probable errors as to establish these findings with higher degrees of scientific certainty than probably attach to most of the unquestioned facts of physiology. The least‐expected of the new findings, namely, the extension of the normal adult life‐expectation, is objectively established with 100‐fold greater degree of statistical convincingness than the accepted canons of scientific criticism call for to justify the characterisation of such a finding is “undoubted.” The basal dietary of these experiments is representative of the food supplies upon which a large proportion of our people subsist; and the animal species chiefly used for the full‐life, successive‐generation experiments above mentioned is the rat, chosen primarily because of the many and close resemblances of the chemistry of the nutrition of that species and our own. The only known significant differences are with respect to ascorbic and nicotinic acids; and toward both of these the human species is much more responsive to the level of dietary intake than is the rat. Critical study reveals no reason to discount the above‐noted laboratory findings because of species difference; but, on the contrary, shows strong scientific evidence that the indications obtained from the experiments with rats are well within the probabilities of the nutritional improvement of human lives by intelligent use of our everyday foods. Such nutritional improvement results not only in longer life but also in the living of our lives upon a higher level of health and accomplishment throughout. The “extra time” is not added to the period of senility. It is inserted in the period of the prime, making this a longer fraction of the life cycle. Thus the nutritional improvement brings, to speak in human terms, both a larger number and a larger percentage of years of full accomplishment, and economic and social value, with a smaller proportion of years of dependency. Space does not permit the discussion here of the very real advantages, to the individual, to the world of industrial affairs, and to the nation, of an earlier attainment of full capacity and also a postponement of the onset of old age. How to extend the benefits of the newer knowledge of nutrition, as widely and as promptly as possible is both an economic and an educational problem. If space permitted, an abundance of statistical evidence could be assembled to show: (1) that, independently of educational opportunities, the families with better per capita purchasing power tend to provide themselves with nutritionally better food supplies; and (2) that also, among families exercising the same purchasing power in the same markets, some provide themselves with dietaries which are nutritionally excellent, others only good, and still others only fair. Much can be (and in many places is being) gained either by direct economic measures to increase the purchasing power of low‐income families whether by increase of money income or by making available to them larger supplies of protective foods at lower prices; or by widespread teaching of the nutritive values of foods and the influence of nutritional wellbeing upon health and earning‐power. Needless to say, the communities which have good use of both of these means of improvement may expect to reap the largest benefit. In an unbiased economic view everyone can see that there is opportunity for enormous benefit in using the new knowledge of nutritive values to guide the investment of the many billions of dollars that are annually spent in this country for food; and especially when the choice of food is now known to have greater and more far‐reaching effects upon health and earning power than has hitherto been supposed. But how often bias enters to cloud the economic view! Attempts to teach a more scientific investment of money in food are apt to meet a “vested interest” attitude of resentment from many purveyors of things which science cannot recommend for a higher place in consumers' budgets. And perhaps an even larger number of people “object on principle to,” or subconsciously react against, any attempt to teach discrimination of consumer demand, and any form of governmental paternalism or further extension of “government into business.” In addition to all the bias of an economic or political sort, tradition in itself retards change, especially in matters which come so closely home as does the family food supply. And in the domain of food, as one of the wisest students of nutrition has said, tradition tends to accumulate prejudices quite as often as truths. These and other causes tend somewhat unduly to caution in public teaching of the everyday use of the newer knowledge, which in terms of foods as bought and eaten is: Give fruits, vegetables, and milk in its various forms (including cheese, cream, and ice‐cream, if desired) a larger place in the dietary and food budget. This can be done without “cutting out,” and without too drastically “cutting down,” any other articles of food. As the Nestor of the new knowledge of nutrition has consistently taught: If we cat what we should, we can at the same time eat what we like. Another question sometimes arising is, How can we feel confident of the practical application of present nutritional knowledge when we admit its probable incompleteness by recommending further research? The present writer's answer is that some findings of such far‐reaching importance that their everyday application ought not to be postponed are conclusively established, and the practical advice above suggested is based upon these and is permanently valid. More elaborate and detailed dietary recommendations may well await the findings of such further researches as are briefly suggested below. Both further research and fuller application, neither delayed by waiting upon the other, should be strongly emphasised, especially in view of the present and impending situation. There should be prompt and wide dissemination of present knowledge at all teaching levels. And nothing is so stimulating to education as that research in the same field be actively productive at the same time. The best way to get a hearing, even for the findings now conclusively established, is to have some related new findings to tell. If made in large numbers, with great care, and on a comprehensive plan, further researches with natural foods as the experimental variables might be of great value. More accurate knowledge of the quantitative distribution of certain of the mineral elements and vitamins in foods can be sought with greater assurance of clear‐cut findings, and with certainty that these data will function both in the advancement of science and in the service of human welfare. There is also a field for much valuable research in the measurement of the nutritional availabilities of the mineral and other nutrients of the different articles and types of food, more especially by experimental methods which comply with the actual conditions of normal nutrition. With more precise knowledge of the nutritive values of a wider range of foods, it becomes increasingly practicable to ensure excellence of nutrition without sacrifice either of personal preferences in food selection or of the economic advantages which market fluctuations and seasonal conditions offer. Fortunately, most seasonal food crops are at their best when they are also at their cheapest. The fuller our knowledge of nutrition, the less we need depend upon diversification, but the better we are prepared to gratify a taste for it. The newer knowledge of nutrition is friendly to the fact that “eating has a great vogue as an amusement,” and several foods formerly regarded as luxuries are now seen to be good nutritional investments. The science of nutrition does not seek the sanctification of spinach: it looks with much more favour on many of the things that we find most fun in eating. The new knowledge helps in meeting the problems of both war‐time and peace‐time food supplies; and the findings of further research will doubtless help us all still further to harmonise our appetites and aspirations—to know how to eat both what we want and what will make us most efficient. Both for completeness of scientific explanation and to establish the boundaries of advantageous practical application of the findings, further research is needed even upon two of the three factors which, as mentioned in an earlier section, have already been studied more fully than others by our recently developed methods. As opportunity permits, similar studies should also be made of the long‐time effects of different levels of intake of each nutritionally essential amino acid, mineral element, and vitamin. Meanwhile, the factors which have already been found to be of outstanding importance in experiments upon the entire life cycle should now be studied by similar methods but with starting‐points at different ages so as to ascertain the influence of initial age upon the potentialities for nutritional improvement of the life history. In the planning of all such studies the world‐wide present interest in efficiency and preparedness will tend to give priority to those researches which bear most directly upon problems of the attainment of the fullest fitness, from what‐ever initial age, and the maintenance of optimal capacity for service. Fortunately, such advances of knowledge will service both science and the nation well, however long or short the war, and whatever its aftermath may be. Studies in nutritional rehabilitation deserve also a well‐considered place in the general programme for bringing the new knowledge into the service of all the people. Between the obvious cases of specific deficiency diseases and, on the other hand, the people whose physique and efficiency are within the zone of our present norm, too many even of our American people (and doubtless a higher proportion in most other countries) are handicapped, though we may not know exactly how and why. Many of these people can be rescued from individual and family frustration, and incalculably enhanced in economic and social value to the community and nation, by “enough of the right kinds of food”; and just what this means in more precise terms, how the greatest good can be accomplished with most promptness and efficiency, are problems within the scope of the present‐day methods of research in the chemistry of nutrition. Moreover, the same general type of research reveals good scientific probabilities of improving the chemistry of the internal environment, and thus enhancing the efficiency, of people who are already quite fortunately healthy and efficient.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

A. Vivek, K. Shambavi and Zachariah C. Alex

This paper aims to focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years. A decade of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years. A decade of research on metamaterial for sensing application has led to the advancement of compact and improved sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, relevant research papers on metamaterial sensors for material characterization published in reputed journals during the period 2007-2018 were reviewed, particularly focusing on shape, size and nature of materials characterized. Each sensor with its design and performance parameters have been summarized and discussed here.

Findings

As metamaterial structures are excited by electromagnetic wave interaction, sensing application throughout electromagnetic spectrum is possible. Recent advancement in fabrication techniques and improvement in metamaterial structures have led to the development of compact, label free and reversible sensors with high sensitivity.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful information on the development of metamaterial sensors for material characterization.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1993

Stephen F. Dealler

Defines the number of recorded cases of Bovine SpongiformEncephalopathy (BSE) in the UK as comprising those reported to theMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food…

Abstract

Defines the number of recorded cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the UK as comprising those reported to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and checked by them using histopathological techniques. Proposes that, if it is assumed that BSE is a similar condition to other mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), and if other specific assumptions are made, it is possible to estimate the true number of cases of BSE and, hence, the number of human beings who have been infected in the UK. States that approximately 6.87 per cent of cattle born in 1988 became infected with BSE, with lower numbers in antecedent years, and that BSE cases reported in the UK represent approximately 23 per cent of the cattle which have become infected and are hence potentially infective to other animals, including man. Discloses the fact that TSEs of animals, of which BSE is one, can be transmitted to a mean of at least 70 per cent of other species and that oral transmission has been successful. Uses the potential levels of infectivity of the bovine products present in human food in the UK from 1984 to 1997, together with data as to individual diets within the population, to assess the number of people who would be expected to have eaten the minimum potentially infective dose or more. Discusses the possible effects on human health.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2008

Alexander D. Klose and Andreas H. Hielscher

This paper sets out to give an overview about state‐of‐the‐art optical tomographic image reconstruction algorithms that are based on the equation of radiative transfer (ERT).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to give an overview about state‐of‐the‐art optical tomographic image reconstruction algorithms that are based on the equation of radiative transfer (ERT).

Design/methodology/approach

An objective function, which describes the discrepancy between measured and numerically predicted light intensity data on the tissue surface, is iteratively minimized to find the unknown spatial distribution of the optical parameters or sources. At each iteration step, the predicted partial current is calculated by a forward model for light propagation based on the ERT. The equation of radiative is solved with either finite difference or finite volume methods.

Findings

Tomographic reconstruction algorithms based on the ERT accurately recover the spatial distribution of optical tissue properties and light sources in biological tissue. These tissues either can have small geometries/large absorption coefficients, or can contain void‐like inclusions.

Originality/value

These image reconstruction methods can be employed in small animal imaging for monitoring blood oxygenation, in imaging of tumor growth, in molecular imaging of fluorescent and bioluminescent probes, in imaging of human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, and in functional brain imaging.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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