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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Lei Xing and Peter Goldsmith

Two effects simultaneously shape the future soybean meal (SBM) demand in China: the income effect on meat consumption and the transition effect due to commercial feed

Abstract

Purpose

Two effects simultaneously shape the future soybean meal (SBM) demand in China: the income effect on meat consumption and the transition effect due to commercial feed usage in animal production. The income effect has been studied intensively in previous research and results in rapidly growing animal product consumption. The commercial feed transition effect, however, is not well understood. The accurate forecast of SBM demand requires an integration of both effects. This study aims to contribute to the commodity forecast literature: by estimating the non-commercial to commercial feed effect and then comparing to the income effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This research addresses the gap in the literature by considering the diffusion path of commercial feeding technology when forecasting China's future SBM demand. The paper addresses the following five objectives to accomplish this goal. Objective 1: estimate income elasticity of demand for meat; Objective 2: estimate the current commercial feeding gap; Objective 3: analyze the reasons for low SBM feeding ratios; Objective 4: estimate future SBM feeding ratios; Objective 5: forecast future soybean demand in China.

Findings

China needs 33 years from 2009 to achieve the SBM feeding ratio of 98 percent. The difference in future derived demand for SBM mainly comes from the transition effect of animal production industry in China. The income effect only contributes on average 2.1 percent of the theoretical SBM consumption quantity over the next 20 years. The feeding technology diffusion effect, however, causes an additional 3.6 percent annual compound growth rate on the demand increase for SBM over the same time periods. The livestock industry's transition effect is roughly equivalent to 1.5 times the income effect.

Practical implications

Policy makers, industry managers, and analysts will now have not only a more accurate estimate of future SBM demand, but also a better understanding of the structural components of that estimation. In particular, the role of commercial feed adoption is explicitly estimated.

Originality/value

This research is the first to estimate the effect of the shift from non-commercial to commercial feeding systems on overall SBM demand. The results show that not accounting for the diffusion of new commercial feeding technology creates under the estimates of future SBM demand.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Abimbola Abiodun Adeyemi-Doro, Sule Ola Salawu and Akintunde Afolabi Akindahunsi

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of two green leafy vegetables (Gongronema latifolium and Celosia argentea) on the hepatic biomarkers [Alanine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of two green leafy vegetables (Gongronema latifolium and Celosia argentea) on the hepatic biomarkers [Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)], cardiac biomarkers [Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)] and histopathology of the heart of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, with the aim of evaluating the vegetables as functional foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental diets consisted of Control Diet (CD), High-Fat Diet (HFD), High-Fat Diet with Blanched Celosia argentea (HCB), High-Fat Diet with Unblanched Celosia argentea (HCU), High-Fat diet with Blanched Gongronema latifolium (HGB) and High-Fat Diet with Unblanched Gongronema latifolium (HGU). Seventy-five albino male rats (weighing 180–200 g) were used. The animals were divided into 15 groups of five albino rats each. Animals in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed with CD, HFD only and HFD with Atorvastin (5 mg/kg b.w), respectively. Animals in Groups 4, 5 and 6 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HCB, respectively. Animals in Groups 7, 8 and 9 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HCU, respectively, whereas animals in Groups 10, 11 and 12 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HGB, respectively, and animals in Groups 13, 14 and 15 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% diet-inclusion of HGU, respectively.

Findings

The incorporation of the vegetal matter into the diet brought about a significant reduction (p = 0.05) in the activities of ALT, AST, CK and LDH when compared with HFD. However, the histological examination showed no pathological lesion, only at 15% inclusion of the vegetables.

Originality/value

The paper established that the incorporation of Celosia argentea and Gongronema latifolium into diet, most especially at 15% inclusion, may serve as functional food in the management of hyperlipidemia and associated complications.

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Denyse M. Julien and Benny Tjahjono

The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project at a safari park in Buckinghamshire, UK. The aim is to introduce lean principles to the park, to enable the…

2982

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project at a safari park in Buckinghamshire, UK. The aim is to introduce lean principles to the park, to enable the park to increase profits through eliminating waste and improving the efficiency of key processes whilst concurrently increasing customer satisfaction. The research is based on a case study approach within the organisation over a period of three months. The project team worked together with management and staff to deliver tangible benefits to the park.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a case study approach within the organisation over a period of three months. The project team worked together with management and staff to deliver tangible benefits to the park. The team adopted a three stage approach linked by two decision points and used a variety of lean tools to help map the current state of practices in the park and to identify areas for improvement in the park's processes.

Findings

The project succeeded in identifying several key areas for improvement. The current situation across a range of customer facing processes is mapped and through detailed analysis and simulations, recommendations for improvements have been delivered to the management. The scope of the project is broad and so for the purpose of this paper, only one key area will be elaborated on, feed logistics. Feed logistics is the distribution network of feed throughout the park from receipt from the suppliers, the storage locations, through to the preparation areas and ultimately the animals.

Originality/value

The project demonstrated that in fact the underlying philosophies and tools of lean thinking can be used with significant benefits to drive improvements in the unusual setting of a safari park. The successful application of lean thinking into a safari park proved to be an extremely unique opportunity to observe the impact of those principles in generating both tangible and intangible benefits to that organisation. In particular, as discussed in this paper, the simplification of the feed network and distribution for the park eliminated waste in the form of movement, time and inventory.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2016

Adem Hiko and Gelgelo Malicha

This chapter reviews factors responsible for climate change, impacts of the change on animal health, zoonotic diseases, and their linkage with One-Health program.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews factors responsible for climate change, impacts of the change on animal health, zoonotic diseases, and their linkage with One-Health program.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter is based on the available literature related to climate change and its effect on animal health and production from different points. The causes and change forcers of climate change, direct and indirect effects of the change on animal health management, host–pathogen–vector interaction, and zoonotic diseases are included. Inter-linkage between climate change and One-Health program are also assessed.

Findings

Beside natural causes of climatic change, greenhouse gases are increasing due to human activities, causing global climate changes which have direct and indirect animal health and production performance impacts. The direct impacts are increased ambient temperature, floods, and droughts, while the indirect are reduced availability of water and food. The change and effect also promote diseases spread, increase survival and availability of the pathogen and its intermediate vector host, responsible for distribution and prevalence of tremendous zoonotic, infectious, and vector-borne diseases. The adverse effect on the biodiversity, distribution of animals and micro flora, genetic makeup of microbials which may lead to emerging and re-emerging disease and their outbreaks make the strong linkage between climate change and One-Health.

Practical implications

Global climate change is receiving increasing international attention where international organizations are increasing their focus on tackling the health impacts. Thus, there is a need for parallel mitigation of climate change and animal diseases in a global form.

Originality/value

Most research on climate change is limited to environmental protection, however this chapter provides a nexus between climate change, animal health, livestock production, and the One-Health program for better livelihood.

Details

Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-819-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Toheeb Oluwakemi Bawala and Akintunde Olaleye Akinsoyinu

High cost of feed forms a major constraint to livestock production in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to show how improved nutritional strategies such as…

405

Abstract

Purpose

High cost of feed forms a major constraint to livestock production in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to show how improved nutritional strategies such as incorporation of unconventional feed resources, such as rumen epithelial tissue scrapings (RETS), which are cheap in cost and availability into the livestock diets, can reduce feed cost and hence achieve a greater profit with a optimal animal performance, become imperative.

Design/methodology/approach

Fifteen lactating West African dwarf goats were randomly allotted into each of three dietary groups (A, B and C) of five animals in a completely randomized design. Each diet contained one of the three dietary protein sources, namely, urea (A), RETS (B) and groundnut cake (GNC) (C) representing non‐protein nitrogen, unconventional natural protein and conventional natural protein sources respectively. After 90 day feeding trial, the performances (dry matter intake, weight gain, milk yield/composition and the blood chemistry) of the goats fed with RETS diet (B) were assessed and compared with those of other two groups (A and C) fed with urea and GNC diets respectively.

Findings

The result show that goats fed with RETS and GNC diets had similar performances and performed better than those fed with urea diet.

Practical implications

RETS is inexpensive and portends no danger to animal health on account of toxicity, as compared to GNC and urea respectively. Its' inclusion in goat diet, however, gives a least cost wholesome ration formula.

Original/value

Nutrition accounts for a greater proportion of production cost expenses in livestock industry. The results indicate that the cost of production can be minimized with the utilization of unconventional feed resources in goat nutrition for farmers to achieve the maximum profit.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Linda Friend

National Animal Health Week, usually the last week in May, was instituted by presidential proclamation in 1984. (The related observances Be Kind to Animals Week, sponsored…

123

Abstract

National Animal Health Week, usually the last week in May, was instituted by presidential proclamation in 1984. (The related observances Be Kind to Animals Week, sponsored by the American Humane Association, and National Pet Week, sponsored by the Auxiliary to the American Veterinary Medical Association, are usually celebrated during the first full week in May.)

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Derek Mozley

Three events of significance to this country took place in 1899 – the British Food Journal was launched, Australia retained the Ashes, and the Boer War hostilities…

Abstract

Three events of significance to this country took place in 1899 – the British Food Journal was launched, Australia retained the Ashes, and the Boer War hostilities commenced. If challenged on the order of their importance, cricketers and Empire‐builders may be excused their preference. However, looking at it purely from the standpoint of pro bono publico, the dispassionate observer must surely opt for the birth of a certain publication as being ultimately the most beneficial of the three.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2009

Miranda P.M. Meuwissen, Alex L.A. Van Andel, Marcel A.P.M. Van Asseldonk and Ruud B.M. Huirne

The purpose of this paper is to assess direct and indirect damages of dairy processors and pig and poultry slaughterhouses in The Netherlands following the occurrence of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess direct and indirect damages of dairy processors and pig and poultry slaughterhouses in The Netherlands following the occurrence of a feed crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from a number of feed crisis scenarios the paper analyses processing industry damage parameters through a combination of sector data and individual company assessments. In case of confidential data, outcomes are presented as indices.

Findings

The paper finds that, in the most likely scenario, it is expected that a feed crisis affects 15 processors, i.e. 20 per cent of processing business in The Netherlands. Processors' direct damage is largely (>90 per cent) determined by the mixing of produce during various phases of processing. Indirect damage is on average perceived not to exceed direct damage.

Practical implications

The results are useful in current stakeholder debates on sharing damage burdens of feed crises across supply chain partners.

Originality/value

This paper extends currently available risk analyses of feed contaminations by eliciting damage beyond farm level.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Mara Miele

Greater attention to and anxiety about farm animal welfare emerged at the end of the 20th century, as worries over food safety and food quality (connected to the BSE, FMD…

Abstract

Greater attention to and anxiety about farm animal welfare emerged at the end of the 20th century, as worries over food safety and food quality (connected to the BSE, FMD, avian influenza and other epidemics) pushed farm animal welfare into public discourse and political debate. This chapter looks at one of the ways in which consumers’ concerns and anxieties about animal welfare are addressed by the Soil Association (the United Kingdom), whose standard is based on a scheme of production that endorses animals’ natural life in the case of certification of organic eggs in the United Kingdom. Drawing on STS approaches it addresses the processes of producing ‘naturalness’ as food ‘attribute’ (to borrow from economics) and how ‘the natural life of hens’ is achieved in the context of eggs’ production.

Details

Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

Keywords

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