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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Congcong Liu, Chong Wang, Keping Ye, Yun Bai, Xiaobo Yu, Chunbao Li and Guanghong Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the influences of the animal fat and fatty acid type on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the influences of the animal fat and fatty acid type on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to propose a formation mechanism of PAHs in fat during electric roasting, which is a method of non-direct-contact-flame heating.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of animal fats and model fat on the formation of PAHs were valued on the basis of the ultra high-performance liquid chromatography data. The corresponding products of the FAME pyrolysis were detected by TG-FTIR. The proposal formation mechanism of PAHs was based on the summary of the literature.

Findings

Contrary to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, DF had higher risk with 280.53 ng/g of concentration after being roasted than the others animal fats of red meat in terms of PAHs formation. This research also ensured the importance of fat on PAHs formation, the concentration of PAHs in pure fats was higher after being electric roasted than that in meat patties and juice which made from corresponding animal fat. What is more, during pure animal fats and meat products being processed, less PAHs formed in the fat with lower extent of unsaturation and lower content of linolenate. In the same way, methyl linolenate demonstrated the significant increasement to PAHs formation compared to the other fatty acids. And, the number of carbon atom and the extent of unsaturation in fatty acid affects the formation of PAHs during roasting. The detection of alkene and alkane allows to propose a formation mechanism of PAHs during model fat being heated. Further study is required to elucidate the confirm moleculars during the formation of PAHs.

Originality/value

This work studied the effect of the carbon atom number and the unsaturation extent of fats and model fats on the formation of PAHs. This work also assure the important of alkene and alkane on the pyrolysis of model fats. This study also researched the formation and distribution of PAHs in pure fats and meat products after being heated.

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Mohammad Mominul Islam

This study aims to reveal how consumers and shoppers are negative toward alcohol, animal fat, producers and certification issues concerned with halal cosmetics products.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reveal how consumers and shoppers are negative toward alcohol, animal fat, producers and certification issues concerned with halal cosmetics products.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 527 students of 4 public universities and a medical college across Bangladesh took part in a survey and 150 shoppers from 2 cities participated in the face to face interview with the structured questionnaires. Frequency distribution was used for categorical and numerical data, and the chi-square test with a binary logistic regression model has tested the association between gender and attitudes toward halal cosmetics. Besides, narratives of Sharīʿah regarding alcohol, meat, fat and halal certification have helped understand the halal issue.

Findings

In total, 83% of the respondents perceived negative attitudes against haram animal fat followed by alcohol (74%) and animal fat (64%). The chi-square test shows that consumers held a significant association toward haram animal fat, (p-value 0.000) alcohol, (p-value 0.000) non-Muslim producers (p-value 0.000) and non-Muslim countries (p-value 0.026). Imperatively, the binary logistic regression model has found a significant negative association to haram animal fat (ß2 −0.295) and alcohol (ß1 −0.200).

Practical implications

Marketers ought to avoid haram animal fat in halal cosmetics besides focusing on alcohol freeness. Also, non-Muslim marketers need to be extra cautious in showcasing their identities. However, Islamic marketers will enjoy a competitive advantage in the halal market because of their demographic factors.

Social implications

Islamic principles on alcohol, meat, fat and certification potentially can help other stakeholders sense the halal norms.

Originality/value

This study has blended the elements of Sharīʿah with empirical evidence to shed light on the fundamental and trust factors for the marketing of halal cosmetics products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

David Lewis

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil…

Abstract

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil and fat are in the energy‐storing tissues. Normally, these stores are present as oils but may solidify on cooling. Hence animal fats which exist naturally at body temperatures tend to be solid at room temperatures, whilst vegetable and marine oils are often liquid at room temperature. Chemically, these differences are related to the chain length and degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid residues; shorter chain lengths and higher levels of unsaturation lead to lower melting points. Microscopically, solidification is seen as an increase in the amount of crystallinity in the fat and this can be detected by polarised light microscopy and by electron microscopy techniques. Differences in crystallinity can be found in fats from different animals — for example, beef fats are generally more crystalline than pork fats — and from different anatomical locations within a single animal — for example, exterior fats such as pork jowl fat are generally less crystalline than interior fats such as mesenteric fat.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1980

The lengthy review of the Food Standards Committee of this, agreed by all public analysts and enforcement officers, as the most complicated and difficult of food groups…

Abstract

The lengthy review of the Food Standards Committee of this, agreed by all public analysts and enforcement officers, as the most complicated and difficult of food groups subject to detailed legislative control, is at last complete and the Committee's findings set out in their Report. When in 1975 they were requested to investigate the workings of the legislation, the problems of control were already apparent and getting worse. The triology of Regulations of 1967 seemed comprehensive at the time, perhaps as we ventured to suggest a little too comprehensive for a rational system of control for arguments on meat contents of different products, descriptions and interpretation generally quickly appeared. The system, for all its detail, provided too many loopholes through which manufacturers drove the proverbial “carriage and pair”. As meat products have increased in range and the constantly rising price of meat, the “major ingredient”, the number of samples taken for analysis has risen and now usually constitutes about one‐quarter of the total for the year, with sausages, prepared meats (pies, pasties), and most recently, minced meat predominating. Just as serial sampling and analysis of sausages before the 1967 Regulations were pleaded in courts to establish usage in the matter of meat content, so with minced meat the same methods are being used to establish a maximum fat content usage. What concerns food law enforcement agencies is that despite the years that the standards imposed by the 1967 Regulations have been in force, the number of infringements show no sign of reduction. This should not really surprise us; there are even longer periods of failures to comply; eg., in the use of preservatives which have been controlled since 1925! What a number of public analysts have christened the “beefburger saga” took its rise post‐1967 and shows every indication of continuing into the distant future. Manufacturers appear to be trying numerous ploys to reduce the content below the Regulation 80% mainly by giving their products new names. Each year, public analysts report a flux of new names and ingenious defences; eg, “caterburgers” and similar concocted nomenclature, and the defence that because the name does not incorporate a meat, it is outside the statutory standard.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 82 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Kolawole Ogundari

The aim of this study is in twofolds. First, to take a critical look at nutrient consumed and its trends and second, to examine the relationship between share of nutrient…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is in twofolds. First, to take a critical look at nutrient consumed and its trends and second, to examine the relationship between share of nutrient consumed across selected food groups and per capita income in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses seemingly unrelated regressions.

Findings

The result of the first objective reveals that the average calorie, protein and fat intakes were still below the recommended daily allowance since the 1960s as diets in Nigeria remained very much cereal-based over the years. Also, the results of objective two show that calorie, protein, and fat share of animal products respond positively but inelastic to the per capita income growth in Nigeria over the years.

Originality/value

Contrary to previous studies, the present study is designed not to fit aggregated nutrient demand from various food items as a function of income, but to relate the nutrient share of each homogenous and heterogeneous food product categories to the aggregated nutrient intake from these food groups and per capita income in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays…

Abstract

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays to be largely a matter of routine, with manufacturers as much involved and interested in maintaining a more or less settled equilibrium as the enforcement agencies. Occasionally the peace is shattered, eg, a search and recovery operation of canned goods of doubtful bacterial purity or containing excess metal contamination, seen very much as an isolated incident; or the recent very large enforcement enterprise in the marketing of horseflesh (and other substitutions) for beef. The nationwide sale and distribution of meat on such a vast scale, only possible by reason of marketing methods — frozen blocks of boneless meat, which even after thawing out is not easily distinguishable from the genuine even in the eye of the expert; this is in effect only a fraud always around in the long ago years built up into a massive illicit trade.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

The earliest law of the adulteration of food imposed divisions among the local authorities of the day in functions and enforcements; most of the urban and rural sanitary…

Abstract

The earliest law of the adulteration of food imposed divisions among the local authorities of the day in functions and enforcements; most of the urban and rural sanitary authorities possessed no power under the law. Provisions dealing with unfit food — diseased, unsound, unwholesome or unfit for human food — were not in the first sale of food and drugs measure and there duties were wholly discharged by all local authorities. Rural sanitary authorities were excluded from food and drugs law and boroughs and urban authorities severly restricted. Enforcement in the rural areas was by the county council, although local officers were empowered to take samples of food and submit them for analysis to the public analyst. Power to appoint the public analyst for the area was the main criterion of a “food and drugs authority”. The Minister had power to direct an authority with a population of less than 40,000 but more than 20,000 to enforce the law of adulteration.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 86 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

A.R. Alina, A.S. Babji and S. Affandi

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisted of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 were used to replace chicken skin (control). Palm fat treatments resulted in a significant decrease of cholesterol content.

Design/methodology/approach

Four nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisting of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratio of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and a commercial shortening, Socfat 36 are studied. The same formulation using chicken skin as a control and a commercial brand of nugget is used as a comparison. Proximate analysis of raw and cooked palm fat nuggets showed a decrease in the protein content and an increase of the fat content. The cholesterol content were reduced up to 45.9 per cent through the addition of palm fat, when compared against the control treatment. Fatty acid composition of palm fats in the palm substituted formulations increased the level of C16:0 and decreased C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, compared with fat from chicken skin.

Findings

The cholesterol content was reduced by 45.9 per cent when chicken skin and fat were substituted with palm fats. The texture of chicken nugget increased when added with palm fats. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content increased while palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased in palm fat treated nuggets.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in showing how palm stearin and olein usage in chicken nuggets helps reduce the product's cholesterol content.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

The times have come down to us as the “Good Old Days”, of Edwardian elegance and grace, peace and plenty, which conceal the poverty, squalor and disease. There seemed less…

Abstract

The times have come down to us as the “Good Old Days”, of Edwardian elegance and grace, peace and plenty, which conceal the poverty, squalor and disease. There seemed less resentment from those who suffered the rigours of the times than from those of today who only know of them by repute. Life was indeed cruel to the submerged tenth of society and the homeless waifs and strays were all too real and true.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 88 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1977

The long controversy that has waxed furiously around the implementation of the EEC Directives on the inspection of poultry meat and hygiene standards to be observed in…

Abstract

The long controversy that has waxed furiously around the implementation of the EEC Directives on the inspection of poultry meat and hygiene standards to be observed in poultry slaughterhouses, cutting‐up premises, &c, appears to be resolved at last. (The Prayer lodged against the Regulations when they were formally laid before Parliament just before the summer recess, which meant they would have to be debated when the House reassembled, could have resulted in some delay to the early operative dates, but little chance of the main proposals being changed.) The controversy began as soon as the EEC draft directive was published and has continued from the Directive of 1971 with 1975 amendments. There has been long and painstaking study of problems by the Ministry with all interested parties; enforcement was not the least of these. The expansion and growth of the poultry meat industry in the past decade has been tremendous and the constitution of what is virtually a new service, within the framework of general food inspection, was inevitable. None will question the need for efficient inspection or improved and higher standards of hygiene, but the extent of the

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 79 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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