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Wireless communication, comprising telecommunication industry products and services which move voice, video, data, and graphics at the speed of the electron, is the back…
Wireless communication, comprising telecommunication industry products and services which move voice, video, data, and graphics at the speed of the electron, is the back bone of the Internet. We have today a wireless world which two Chief ‘Ntrepreneur Officers (CNOs)‐American Sam Ginn (AirTouch) and Britisher Chris Gent (Vodafone)‐created by their Memory Management during the 16 years between Olympics in Los Angeles (1984) and Olympics in Sydney (2000).
In recent years, a growing number of libraries have canceled or unbundled their “Big Deal” journal subscriptions – those subscriptions that include a full package of…
In recent years, a growing number of libraries have canceled or unbundled their “Big Deal” journal subscriptions – those subscriptions that include a full package of digital journal titles for one discounted cost. This started as an affordability problem but has slowly morphed into a challenge from libraries demanding a new pricing structure that accommodates and spurs the growing open access movement.
The change has caused a variety of challenges for technical services units including the increased need for user data, increasingly complicated workflows as they manage partial subscriptions, new interactions with consortia, and ongoing campus conversations. Whether the library is seeking to simply unbundle due to budget constraints, or push for new models such as “read and publish”, there is a tremendous impact on the work of technical services units.
This chapter will explore the rationale and growth of the Big Deal, how it is breaking, four case studies on breaking Big Deals, a brief discussion of new transformative agreements, new challenges for consortia, and implications for technical services units moving forward.
Two perspectives provide alternative insights into household composition in contemporary Eastern Europe. The first stresses that individuals have relatively fixed…
Two perspectives provide alternative insights into household composition in contemporary Eastern Europe. The first stresses that individuals have relatively fixed preferences about living arrangements and diverge from them only when they cannot attain their ideal. The second major approach, the adaptive strategies perspective, predicts that individuals have few preferences. Instead, they use household composition to cope with economic hardship, deploy labor, or care for children or the elderly. This article evaluates these approaches in five post‐socialist East‐European countries, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Russia, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results suggest that household extension is common in these countries and provide the most evidence for the adaptive strategies perspective. In particular, the results show that variables operationalizing the adaptive strategies perspective, including measures of single motherhood, retirement status, agricultural cultivation, and poverty, increase the odds of household extension.
Compared with the fierce price competition in 1998, the well‐order price competition is witnessed in Chinese iron and steel industry now and the pricing behaviors of steel…
Compared with the fierce price competition in 1998, the well‐order price competition is witnessed in Chinese iron and steel industry now and the pricing behaviors of steel firms also follow the certain rules. Based on the methods of collecting the secondary data and interviewing, this paper examines the pricing behaviors of firms to explain the how Chinese steel firms make their pricing decisions and maintain the well‐order competitive relationship among them. The authors found out that (1) most Chinese steel companies adopt a kind of strategic perspective in their pricing decision making, in which understanding of the market trend and the close attention to their competitors are both important; (2) there obviously exists price leader and followers in Chinese iron and steel industry, and the relationship between price leader and followers is relatively stable and the factor behind this phenomenon is the existence of a kind of informal platform of communication among competitors, government and trade associations.
When agents first become active investors in financial markets, they are relatively inexperienced. Much of the literature focuses on the incentives of presumably sophisticated informed agents to produce information, and not on the nave agents. However, unsophisticated agents are important aspects of financial markets and worth analyzing further. In this paper, we provide a theoretical perspective that addresses the issue of how many nave traders would one expect in a financial market where policy makers try to educate the nave agents.We show that such policy balances the effects of nave trades on corporate investment and liquidity, as well as the monetary cost of increasing financial sophistication. The optimal proportion of nave agents varies with the value of information, the noise in private signals, and the inherent sensitivity of corporate investment to prices.We also show that the policy tool of encouraging insider trading can deter nave investors and thus improve corporate governance and the efficacy of corporate investment.
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combined with multi-user massive MIMO has been a well-known approach for high spectral efficiency in wideband systems, and it was…
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combined with multi-user massive MIMO has been a well-known approach for high spectral efficiency in wideband systems, and it was targeted to detect the MIMO signals. The increasing data rates with multiple antennas and multiple users that share the communication channel simultaneously lead to higher capacity requirements and increased complexity. Thus, different detection algorithms were developed for the Massive MIMO.
This paper focuses on the various literature analyzes on various detection algorithms and techniques for MIMO detectors. Here, it reviews several research papers and exhibits the significance of each detection method.
This paper provides the details of the performance analysis of the MIMO detectors and reveals the best value in the case of each performance measure. Finally, it widens the research issues that can be useful for future researchers to be accomplished in MIMO massive detectors
This paper has presented a detailed review of the detection of massive MIMO on different algorithms and techniques. The survey mainly focuses on different types of channels used in MIMO detections, the number of antennas used in transmitting signals from the source to destination, and vice-versa. The performance measures and the best performance of each of the detectors are described.
In December 1988, the Los Angeles County Public Library entered into an agreement with the Security Pacific Merchant Bank of Los Angeles for the five‐year lease/purchase of a $5.3 million Automated Circulation System (ACS) from Data Research Associates (DRA) of St. Louis. The previous June, the Public Library had entered into a cash contract with DRA, but shifted its position after determining that it was to the County's advantage to lease/purchase the system rather than using available cash fund balances needed for other budgetary priorities. The June 1988 contract with DRA included a clause allowing the assignment of ownership for financing purposes. After negotiating the best possible agreement to purchase the computer system, the County, on behalf of the library, leased/purchased the system from the bank which in turn issued Certificates of Participation to raise the cash from persons and corporations who wanted to purchase relatively short term income tax free investments.
This paper is a study of the current trends and conditions of electronic resources for Chinese studies, based on a recent survey on the Internet of 29 Chinese libraries in…
This paper is a study of the current trends and conditions of electronic resources for Chinese studies, based on a recent survey on the Internet of 29 Chinese libraries in North America and eight Chinese libraries in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The survey discussed current electronic resources for Chinese studies, with a union list of major Chinese language databases currently used in libraries in Asia and the US. Current views on the use and development of electronic resources for Chinese studies were summarised.
Whenever capitalism in the West appears to be dragging with unresolved problems, then quite a few people, including professional economists, begin to think that perhaps…
Whenever capitalism in the West appears to be dragging with unresolved problems, then quite a few people, including professional economists, begin to think that perhaps socialism is a better alternative. Conversely, in the East even a larger number of people, including economists (who are not activists), seriously believe that in view of their shortages and meagre incomes capitalism would be a better alternative.