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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Michael B. McDonald and Ramon P. DeGennaro

The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature on angel investors. Research on angel investors is sparse because data are sparse. Most comprehensive studies of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature on angel investors. Research on angel investors is sparse because data are sparse. Most comprehensive studies of angel investors have focused on the USA and UK. In these studies, definitions of angel investors and estimates of returns on angel investments vary dramatically. What can one make of this wide range of reported returns?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the literature and find that the calculations of reported results are vague.

Findings

Most researchers do not explicitly report if their estimates are equal-weighted or value-weighted, nor do they say whether the results are weighted by the duration of the investment. The authors show that the unit of analysis – investment, project or angel – affects interpretations.

Practical implications

Limitations on the comparability between various studies of angel investing returns leave the current literature incomplete. They also offer opportunities for future study in the area.

Originality/value

The authors are the first to examine the angel investing literature in a comprehensive fashion, comparing between various returns found across all major studies of the subject done to date.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Jaume Argerich and Claudio Cruz-Cázares

The lack of a standard definition and data sources makes it hard to compare findings and advance our knowledge in the business angel’s domain. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of a standard definition and data sources makes it hard to compare findings and advance our knowledge in the business angel’s domain. The purpose of this paper is to tackle this problem by presenting a proposal of a potential definition of business angels that it based on ten issues identified in 30 years of business angels’ research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews 24 studies on business angels and classifies definition inconsistencies found in ten different issues. Those differences are compared with methodological choices on sampling and with subsequent results.

Findings

The authors observe a connection between definitional and sampling choices, and the results obtained. Inconsistent definitions can lead to results that are more than 400 times higher in terms of investment per project, for example.

Research limitations/implications

The authors believe that the main implication of proposing a standard definition of business angles could help the academia in decreasing the great observed diversity which is actually leading to inconsistent and incomparable results that limit our understanding of this phenomenon.

Originality/value

This paper differs from previous studies as it tackles the problem by identifying the definitional issues and presents a framework in order to build a consensus definition, rather than just comparing definitions.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Garrison Hongyu Song and Ajeet Jain

This paper aims to explore the allocation of the exit value of a start-up company in market equilibrium between an angel investor and an entrepreneur in the very…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the allocation of the exit value of a start-up company in market equilibrium between an angel investor and an entrepreneur in the very early-stage financing market.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical model is established based on the two-sided random search theory and the model’s ability to match the empirical data is evaluated via simulation.

Findings

The model indicates that the allocation of the final investment outcome is not proportional to the initial investments by the angel investor and the entrepreneur. The simulation results show that the continued investment by the entrepreneur and the private benefit acquired by the angel investor have a more profoundly negative influence on the angel investor’s share of the exit value of the start-up company. Moreover, the market search structure represented by the matching probability of an angel investor to an entrepreneur has a more significant impact on the angel investor’s share than the other model parameters.

Originality/value

The importance of market search friction in the very early-stage financing market is emphasized. The concepts of continued investments and private benefits are introduced and quantified for the first time under the framework of angel investment. The impacts of such model parameters as the matching probability of an angel investor to an entrepreneur, the success rate of a start-up company, the bargaining power of an angel investor and the discount rate on the allocation of the exit value of the start-up company are investigated as well.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Book part
Publication date: 26 December 2016

John Y. Lo

Abstract

Details

Angel Financing in Asia Pacific
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-128-9

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Book part
Publication date: 26 December 2016

John Y. Lo

Abstract

Details

Angel Financing in Asia Pacific
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-128-9

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kirsi Snellman and Gabriella Cacciotti

The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how angel investors’ emotions unfold in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how angel investors’ emotions unfold in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the social environment. Complementing recent research that has emphasized the financial calculations, we add angel investors’ own emotional arousal to the list of tools that may help them to rate investment opportunities.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Drawing on semi-structured qualitative interviews, we develop a phenomenological analysis of the investment opportunity evaluation process at the level of angel investors’ lived experience.

Findings

Our findings indicate that when angel investors use their emotional arousal in evaluating investment criteria, they engage in a developmental process characterized by three elements: subjective validation, social validation, and investment decision.

Research Limitations/Implications

We illuminate how discrete emotions can complement rational considerations in the opportunity evaluation journey. Capturing the nature of emotion as action oriented, embodied, socially situated, and distributed, we embrace its adaptive socially situated dynamics.

Practical Implications

Taking a step toward better understanding of the soft aspects in the relationship development that leads to investments, we hope this study will help not only those entrepreneurs who need funding but also those policymakers who design new incentives that improve the flow of investment into promising new ventures.

Originality/Value

We demonstrate how angel investors’ emotions can complement their rational considerations in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the social environment. Identifying boundary values for the conditions that are necessary and sufficient to advance in the process, we have demonstrated how emotion can serve as a driving or restraining force not only during subjective validation but also during social validation.

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Book part
Publication date: 26 December 2016

William Scheela, Kris Nalamlieng and Chanisa Rueangkirianya

Abstract

Details

Angel Financing in Asia Pacific
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-128-9

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Jesper C. Sort and Christian Nielsen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurs market their business opportunities towards business angels in the investment process. This is achieved by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurs market their business opportunities towards business angels in the investment process. This is achieved by introducing the business model canvas as a mitigating framework to help entrepreneurs in communicating and structuring the information desired by business angels.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mobilises a case study approach by following a series of investment processes and investment meetings between entrepreneurs and business angels through 27 semi-structured interviews as well as participant observation and qualitative participant feedback from 13 investment processes.

Findings

The findings illustrate how introducing a framework like the business model canvas helps alleviate the informational and communication challenges between entrepreneurs and business angels. However, some problems occurred when the entrepreneurs and the business angels did not fully agree on the value proposition of the investment opportunity.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that entrepreneurs who market their business cases to investors obtain better feedback and a higher chance of funding using the business model canvas. Implications of this paper also relate to the preparation of the entrepreneurs and that matchmakers between entrepreneurs and investors can use the business model canvas to facilitate such processes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to both the theory of the investment process as well as the application of the business model canvas.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Gianni Romaní, Miguel Atienza, Felipe Campos, Pablo Bahamondes and Rodrigo Hernández

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the characteristics of high net worth individuals (HNWI) as potential angel investor in Antofagasta, the main mining…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the characteristics of high net worth individuals (HNWI) as potential angel investor in Antofagasta, the main mining resource periphery in Chile.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the resource periphery approach and angel investing, the authors apply a survey to a sample of 37 HNWI in this region. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics.

Findings

Descriptive results show that the characteristics of these individuals do not significantly differ from those exhibited by angel investors in developed countries and that HNWI show a relative high willingness to become angels and to form a network.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has some limitations regarding the size and scope of the sample. It is a relatively short sample that does not allow to make more sophisticated analysis and it is only regional and, therefore, it is not possible to make a comparison at a national level.

Practical implications

From the perspective the design of policies and programmes oriented towards the promotion of a high potential start-ups in resources peripheries, it is essential to know what the characteristics of HNWI are and their propensity to become angel investors.

Originality/value

Research on angel investment has been traditionally based on the experience of core regions in developed countries. This type of funding source, however, can play a significant role in the promotion of development and diversification in resource peripheries due to the limited access that these areas have to traditional capital funds and the orientation of angel investment towards innovative ventures, but studies from this perspective are very scarce. In this sense, this paper is pioneer in this topic in peripheral regions.

Propósito

El objetivo de este artículo es identificar y analizar las características de las personas con alto patrimonio neto como potenciales inversionistas ángeles en Antofagasta, la principal fuente de recursos minerales en la periferia de Chile.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

A través del enfoque de las periferias de los recursos naturales y la inversión ángel, se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra de 37 personas con alto patrimonio neto en esta región. La información recogida fue analizada usando estadística descriptiva.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que las características de estas personas no difieren significativamente de los inversionistas ángeles en países desarrollados y muestran un fuerte deseo de ser inversionistas ángeles y formar una red.

Limitaciones/implicaciones

Este artículo presenta algunas limitaciones en relación al tamaño y el alcance de la muestra. Es una muestra relativamente pequeña y no permite realizar análisis más sofisticados y es solo a nivel regional y, por lo tanto, no es posible comparar a nivel nacional.

Implicaciones prácticas

Desde la perspectiva del diseño de políticas públicas y programas orientadas a la promoción de empresas de alto potencial de crecimiento en las periferias de recursos naturales, es esencial conocer las características de las personas con alto patrimonio neto y su propensión a convertirse en inversionistas ángeles.

Originalidad/valor

La investigación sobre inversión ángel ha estado tradicionalmente enfocada en la experiencia de las regiones centrales de los países desarrollados. Sin embargo, esta alternativa de financiamiento puede jugar un rol preponderante en la promoción del desarrollo y la diversificación en las periferias de recursos naturales debido al limitado acceso a fuentes de capital tradicionales y la orientación de la inversión ángel hacia emprendimientos innovadores en estas regiones. Los estudios desde esta perspectiva son muy escasos. En este sentido, este artículo es pionero en la investigación de la inversión ángel en las regiones periféricas de recursos naturales.

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

John R. Hendon, Joseph R. Bell, Brittany Blair and Don K. Martin

Over the past decade more than 20 states have begun to offer tax credits to angel investors in an attempt to increase state economic growth. These credits are intended to…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade more than 20 states have begun to offer tax credits to angel investors in an attempt to increase state economic growth. These credits are intended to increase new venture investment, create high‐paying and knowledge‐based jobs, and increase tax revenue collections, but there is some debate over costs and benefits associated with these credits. This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper will examine the implementation and perceived effectiveness of tax credit programs in Hawaii, Louisiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Oregon, and Vermont. These states were chosen for this research sample based on their differing physical locations within the USA and the uniqueness of the characteristics of each state's chosen tax credit program.

Findings

The paper reveals that state investment tax credit programs vary widely in areas of eligibility, level of funding available per investment and per year, and whether or not the credits are refundable. All of these factors can cause significant variability in effectiveness of a state program.

Practical implications

Recommended criteria for achieving an outcome that may result in lawmaker support for tax credit incentives will be outlined based on the success, trial, and error of various state programs. These criteria will allow some commonality in analysis of potential or ongoing incentive programs.

Originality/value

This paper provides an analysis of the various existing state investment tax credit programs and identifies characteristics of such programs that may, if used during program formation, result in greater confidence by lawmakers in the program's overall effectiveness and provide a greater commitment to program success.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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