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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Gary N. Powell and D. Anthony Butterfield

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of psychological androgyny, a construct that represents a combination of masculinity and femininity, in explaining changes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of psychological androgyny, a construct that represents a combination of masculinity and femininity, in explaining changes in descriptions of a good manager over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples of the same two populations were surveyed at four different points in time spanning four decades (N = 1,818).

Findings

Good-manager descriptions became increasingly similar in masculinity and femininity over time, or increasingly androgynous according to the balance conceptualization of androgyny. However, both good-manager masculinity and good-manager femininity declined over time, with masculinity declining to a greater extent, which accounted for the greater similarity in these scores. As a result, according to the high masculinity/high femininity conceptualization of androgyny, good-manager descriptions actually became decreasingly androgynous and more “undifferentiated”. Overall, the trend in leader prototypes over time was toward less emphasis on traits associated with members of either sex.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of two alternative methods of analyses and the survey instrument are acknowledged. What constituted a good manager may have depended on the context. Further scholarly attention to the concept of an undifferentiated leadership style is recommended.

Practical implications

People may be moving beyond leader prototypes based on the simple application of gender stereotypes. Changes in leader prototypes over the past four decades may contribute to enhancements in women’s societal status.

Social implications

Leader prototypes may disadvantage women less than in the past.

Originality/value

Results suggest that the role of androgyny in leader prototypes is declining according to the high masculinity/high femininity conceptualization.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Sunita Ramam Rupavataram

Purpose: The Internet provides patients easy access to scientific information originally, limited to medical professionals. However, this information may not be entirely…

Abstract

Purpose: The Internet provides patients easy access to scientific information originally, limited to medical professionals. However, this information may not be entirely relevant to the patient’s context. Therefore, doctor–patient conversations need to contextualize this information to the specific circumstances of the patient’s illness. A problem exists insofar as this conversation may not always meet the patient’s expectations. Interpersonal competence, an important aspect of emotional intelligence, is therefore critical for medical practice in the digital era. “Medicine” is viewed as a “masculine” profession requiring competence, while compassion as “feminine”. Gender stereotyped socialization prescribes gender - congruent emotional display norms for men and women thereby, influencing both gender behavior and emotions. Psychological androgyny is the coexistence of masculine and feminine behavior traits in the same individual irrespective of biological sex. This leads to responses, which are appropriate for situations irrespective of biological sex, rather than gender-stereotyped behaviour. In this study, I explored the role of gender personality and interpersonal competence in doctor–patient interaction.

Design/ methodology/approach: Sixty Indian doctors across different specializations completed the self-report format of emotional intelligence appraisal (Emotional Intelligence Appraisal-EIA) as measure of interpersonal competence and Bem’s Sex role Inventory (BSRI) as a measure of psychological androgyny.

Findings: Psychologically androgynous doctors scored significantly higher on interpersonal competence than non-androgynous doctors.

Practical implication: Since both male and female doctors undergo similar training, there is a need to explore in greater depth the nature of the relationship between androgynous gender behaviors in doctors and corresponding interpersonal competence correlates, to understand their impact on patient care and healthcare related outcomes for both patients and doctors. This is especially critical because, in addition to increasing incidents of violence against doctors in Internet-empowered world, previous research also points to varying patient outcomes and legal complications based on biological sex of doctors.

Details

Emotions and Service in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-260-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2018

Gary N. Powell, D. Anthony Butterfield and Xueting Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the “Ideal President” (IP) and presidential candidates in the 2016 US presidential election in relation to gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the “Ideal President” (IP) and presidential candidates in the 2016 US presidential election in relation to gender stereotypes and leader prototypes.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 378 business students assessed perceptions of either the IP or a particular candidate on measures of masculinity and femininity. Androgyny (balance of masculinity and femininity) and hypermasculinity (extremely high masculinity) scores were calculated from these measures.

Findings

The IP was perceived as higher in masculinity than femininity, but less similar to the male (Donald Trump) than the female (Hillary Clinton) candidate. IP perceptions were more androgynous than in the 2008 US presidential election. Respondents’ political preferences were related to their IP perceptions on hypermasculinity, which in turn were consistent with perceptions of their preferred candidate.

Social implications

Trump’s high hypermasculinity scores may explain why he won the electoral college vote, whereas Clinton’s being perceived as more similar to the IP, and IP perceptions’ becoming more androgynous over time, may explain why she won the popular vote.

Originality/value

The study extends the literature on the linkages between gender stereotypes and leader prototypes in two respects. Contrary to the general assumption of a shared leader prototype, it demonstrates the existence of different leader prototypes according to political preference. The hypermasculinity construct, which was introduced to interpret leader prototypes in light of Trump’s candidacy and election, represents a valuable addition to the literature with potentially greater explanatory power than masculinity in some situations.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Sunita Ramam Rupavataram

Gender-stereotyped organizational expectations compromise outcomes desired from numerically balanced gender representation. Sex-roles allow both men and women to exhibit…

Abstract

Gender-stereotyped organizational expectations compromise outcomes desired from numerically balanced gender representation. Sex-roles allow both men and women to exhibit masculine or feminine behaviors based on their self-construal of “psychological-gender.” Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered “feminine” and rational intelligence “masculine.” So, using Bem sex-role inventory and Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, the current study explored EI in 217 senior Indian managers from masculine/feminine sex-role perspective. There was no difference in EI of men/women. Moreover, EI did not differ in men/women categorized in “same” sex-role. However significant differences emerged across sex-roles with feminine sex-role participants actually scoring significantly lesser than androgynous or masculine sex-role participants although emotional intelligence is considered as a feminine intelligence. Implications of sex-role-driven differences in EI in organizational context are discussed.

Details

Emotions and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Danielle Mercer-Prowse

This chapter presents two stories of inspiring women political leaders, Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minster of New Zealand, and Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, to shed…

Abstract

This chapter presents two stories of inspiring women political leaders, Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minster of New Zealand, and Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, to shed light on the dire importance of using feminine leadership models (i.e., embodying kindness, empathy and concern for others) during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as everyday practice. I use a multi-dimensional theoretical conceptualization grounded in gender stereotyping and the theory of androgyny to emphasize the transition from historical masculine leadership ideals (‘think manager, think male’ – Schein & Davidson, 1993) to leadership discourse that symbolizes inclusivity of leadership with an emphasis on using kindness, regardless of whether you identify as a male or female leader.

Details

Kindness in Management and Organizational Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-157-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Gary N. Powell, D. Anthony Butterfield and Xueting Jiang

The purpose of this study was to explore issues of gender and diversity raised by the 2020 US presidential election.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore issues of gender and diversity raised by the 2020 US presidential election.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples from two populations (n = 667) described either an ideal president or one of the major-party candidates for president (Donald Trump and Joe Biden) or vice president (Mike Pence and Kamala Harris) on an instrument that assessed self-ascribed masculinity and femininity. Androgyny was calculated as the difference between masculinity and femininity; the closer the score to zero, the more androgynous the candidate.

Findings

The ideal president was viewed as androgynous (i.e. balanced in masculine and feminine traits) rather than masculine as in previous studies of presidential leadership. Compared to the White male candidates, Harris, a woman of color, displayed the most androgynous profile. The Democratic ticket represented a “balanced” team, with one candidate (Biden) higher on femininity and the other (Harris) higher on masculinity; in essence, an androgynous ticket. In contrast, the Republican ticket (Trump and Pence) represented a decidedly masculine ticket. Ideal president profiles differed according to respondents’ gender and preferred president.

Practical implications

The Democrats winning the election with an androgynous ticket suggests that a more level playing field for female vis-à-vis male candidates for political leader roles may be arriving.

Originality/value

The finding of an ideal president as androgynous rather than masculine is an original contribution to the literature on presidential leadership.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Gary N. Powell, D. Anthony Butterfield and Xueting Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to examine stability and change in the linkage between gender and managerial stereotypes over a five-decade period.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine stability and change in the linkage between gender and managerial stereotypes over a five-decade period.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples from two populations (n = 2347) described a “good manager” on an instrument that assessed masculinity and femininity during each of the past five decades.

Findings

Good-manager descriptions exhibited a decreasing emphasis on masculinity and increasing emphasis on femininity over time, culminating in an androgynous profile, or a balance of masculine and feminine traits, for each population in the most recently collected data.

Practical implications

Although women face systemic barriers in the managerial ranks of organizations, a change in managerial stereotypes to an androgynous rather than masculine profile would represent one less barrier for them to overcome.

Social implications

If managers come to be held to an androgynous standard in their behavior regardless of their gender, there would be a more level playing field for candidates for open managerial positions, rather than one tilted in favor of men.

Originality/value

The analysis of data from samples of the same population types using the same measures systematically over five decades, and the provocative finding of an androgynous profile of a good manager in the most recently collected data, are original contributions to the literature.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Fajer Saleh Al-Mutawa

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Muslim men in Kuwait negotiate their luxury fashion consumption (considered a feminized practice in Kuwait) without…

1390

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Muslim men in Kuwait negotiate their luxury fashion consumption (considered a feminized practice in Kuwait) without compromising their masculine identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through 108 qualitative questionnaires and two unstructured in-depth interviews. Non-participant observations and informal conversations took place as part of an ongoing ethnographic study on luxury fashion consumption in Kuwait.

Findings

Within the feminized space of fashion, accessories (such as shoes, wallets, watches, sunglasses, etc.) seem to allow Muslim men an androgynous space (consumer constructions of gendered spaces to be equally masculine and feminine) to be fashionable yet maintain a masculine identity.

Research limitations/implications

Further research may explore the negotiation of androgyny among men who consume luxury fashion clothing or conspicuously feminized fashion (such as jewellery and handbags) in highly gendered societies. Limitations include reliance on questionnaire data (lacks depth insights) and narrow consumer (Muslim men in Kuwait).

Practical implications

Marketers of luxury fashion brands in Kuwait should focus on fashion accessories when targeting males. Advertising needs to shift gender perceptions of traditionally feminine fashion (such as handbags or jewellery) towards androgyny to attract male consumers. Religiosity of consumers is an important segmentation basis, and Muslim men who are less religious may be more open towards fashion consumption.

Originality/value

This research proposes the notion of androgynous spaces, contributing to gender within marketing theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Emily Keener, Clare M. Mehta and Kimberly E. Smirles

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Methodology/approach

To highlight Sandra Bem’s contributions, we examined masculinity and femininity, broadly defined, from a socio-developmental theoretical perspective, conceptualizing gender development as embedded within a socio-historical context.

Findings

Our review of the literature illustrates that both age and social contextual features influence femininity and masculinity and more specifically that in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, femininity and masculinity vary depending on the sex (same- vs. other-sex) of those in the social context. Along with demonstrating the current utility and extensions of Sandra Bem’s research, we also emphasize the feminist and social justice applications of her body of work.

Research limitations

Weaknesses in the existing methodology where instruments are designed based on the assumption that masculinity and femininity are stable traits rather than characteristics that vary are discussed. Limitations to research focused on either social or developmental perspectives are highlighted and suggestions for a more integrative approach are provided.

Originality/value

Similar to how Sandra Bem’s work showed that sex and gender need not be linked, research and theory on the developmental and contextual specificity of gender also demonstrate that there is freedom in the expression of gender.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Kiefe Heibormi Passah and Nagari Mohan Panda

The paper presents a structural model to explain the relationship between various gender-role orientations (GROs) and motivational antecedents leading to entrepreneurial…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper presents a structural model to explain the relationship between various gender-role orientations (GROs) and motivational antecedents leading to entrepreneurial intention (EI). It examines the influence of GRO in the formation of EI among educated youths of Northeast India.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structural equation modelling approach, the hypothesized model is tested on a sample of 642 post-graduate students from four different universities in Northeast India, a developing region with unique socio-cultural diversity. The mediating role of EI antecedents on the relationship between GRO and EI was examined after establishing the reliability and validity of the measurement model.

Findings

Results from the analysis support the hypothesized structural relationship confirming the influence of GRO on EI. The study also finds that androgynous individuals have a higher EI than their masculine or feminine counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the understanding of EI determinants from a GRO perspective, especially in the industrially backward region of an emerging economy. It adds to the existing literature by empirically proving the role of gender orientation. The results have several policy implications for educational institutions and policymakers in emerging economies.

Originality/value

The paper re-examines the predictive value of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model from a GRO perspective and compares indirect effects of gender identity through motivational antecedents on EI. Whilst TPB predicted EI in Western and developed countries, using a more diverse sample provides strong empirical evidence in the context of a developing region.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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