We investigate whether limited investor attention is a factor in the effectiveness of institutional shareholder activism. Prior research has shown that an inability of…
We investigate whether limited investor attention is a factor in the effectiveness of institutional shareholder activism. Prior research has shown that an inability of market participants to allocate sufficient intellectual effort to the investment decision can have an impact on market price and volume behavior. We extend this research in an applied setting by considering the effectiveness of the California Public Employees’ Retirement System (CalPERS) focus list, whose aim is to improve the performance and corporate governance of target firms. We find that the share price and volume response to being included in the focus list is a function of the investor attention in a stock, which in turn has an impact on the subsequent managerial response. This suggests that when attention is a scarce cognitive resource, the proactive exploitation of news signals can be an efficient activism strategy.
Reviews some of the good reasons for looking to real neural nets for guidance on ways of implementing effective parallel computation. Discusses existing artificial neural nets with particular attention to the extent to which they model real neural activity. Indicates some serious mismatches, but shows that there are also important correspondences. The successful applications are to image processing, pattern classification and automatic optimization, in various guises. Reviews important issues raised by extension to the symbolic problem solving of “intellectual” thought, the prime concern of classical AI. These illustrate the importance of recursion, and of a degree of continuity associated with any evolutionary process.
Increasingly, diverse urban areas are in growing need of planning and design that include and welcome residents from a wide range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This study aims to use a service design framework to assess how the physical design of ten public spaces in New York City impacted visitors’ experience and sense of welcome.
The study used two main approaches to address this question. First, the authors conducted a sentiment analysis and a qualitative content analysis of Twitter data collected from each location as well as Tweets that mentioned each location. Second, they collected data through more traditional means by interviewing staff and visitors at four sites and also performing on site observational research.
These results suggested that certain physical design elements can significantly impact visitors’ sense of welcome and comfort. These include color, natural light, plentiful windows and open space. The study also found that Twitter data can be a useful tool to add a layer of insight into understanding visitors’ experience of a public building and recommends that public agencies should partner with cultural institutions and other community groups to use Twitter to monitor community attitudes and communicate with the public.
The research drew on the emerging service design framework and used novel data collection and analysis techniques.
Tucked in the back of Venkataraman’s 1997 work on the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship (DDE) lies a pointer to a question each individual must face when choosing to…
Tucked in the back of Venkataraman’s 1997 work on the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship (DDE) lies a pointer to a question each individual must face when choosing to start a new venture; “is entrepreneurship worth it?” Inventorying costs associated with risk, uncertainty, and illiquidity against surpluses from financial and psychological factors unique to entrepreneurship, Venkataraman tempts readers to tally entrepreneurial returns. The authors summarize and integrate an academic study of these various cost and return components over the past 20 years using Venkataraman’s original framework. The authors find the answer to the question of “is entrepreneurship worth it?” varies with time. Researcher’s answer to the question has shifted from an early view that entrepreneurs sacrifice financial gain in exchange for soft psychological benefits to a more positive view that entrepreneurs are rewarded both financially and psychologically for the unique costs borne in the DDE. But the rewards are not immediate. In entrepreneur time, break-even emerges by gradually overcoming an initial deficit. As surpluses accrue, returns to entrepreneurs likely eventually exceed those of their wage-earning peers.
The identification criteria, service provision, and prevalence rates of individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) vary across state jurisdictions in the…
The identification criteria, service provision, and prevalence rates of individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) vary across state jurisdictions in the United States despite being governed by the same general rules. Therefore, it is unlikely that nations with different histories, economic circumstances, and attitudes toward social norms will demonstrate similarity regarding identification and treatment of individuals with EBD. The fields of anthropology, sociology, and psychology provide conceptual frames for understanding how EBD might be considered across cultures. The present chapter reviews a number of these conceptual considerations. Although there is considerable evidence for variability across cultures, there is also evidence for a shared basis that appears to be part of human characteristics, regardless of culture. The chapter concludes by considering special education services in general as a subset of the education systems provided to all citizens in several nations with diverse cultures and economic situation.