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Analysis of Information Options offers new tools for evaluating investments in research, mineral exploration, logistics, energy transmission, and other information…
Analysis of Information Options offers new tools for evaluating investments in research, mineral exploration, logistics, energy transmission, and other information operations. With Information Options, the underlying assets are information assets and the rules governing exercise are based on the realities of the information realm (infosphere). Information Options can be modeled as options to “purchase” information assets by paying the cost of the information operations involved. Information Options arise at several stages of value creation. The initial stage involves observation of physical phenomena with accompanying data capture. The next refinement is to organize the data into structured databases. Then bits of information are selected from storage and synthesized into an information product (such as a management report). Next, the information product is presented to the user via an efficient interface that does not require the user to be a field expert. Information Options are similar in concept to real options but substantially different in their details, since real options have physical objects as the underlying assets and the rules governing exercise are based on the realities of the physical world. Also, while exercising a financial option typically kills the option, Information Options may include multiple exercises. Information Options may involve high volatility or jump processes as well, further enhancing their value. This chapter extends several important real option applications into the information realm, including jump process models and models for valuing options to synthesize any of n information items into any of m output assets.
In this paper, we develop a specific valuation model far the American perpetual put option with uncertain exercise price and empirically verify that the closed-end fund…
In this paper, we develop a specific valuation model far the American perpetual put option with uncertain exercise price and empirically verify that the closed-end fund (CEF) discount puzzle can be explained by a put model.Using available sample data of 56 CEFs for the most recent seven years, we find strong empirical evidence for our discount approach. We find no significant differences between the average discounts and average returns of domestic and international funds. However, the international funds seem to have significantly greater volatility of returns than that of domestic funds, implying that foreign financial assets could be priced differently from domestic funds.
Stock Participation Accreting Redemption Quarterly-pay Securities (SPARQS), a service mark of Morgan Stanley, represent another form of equity-linked structured notes. The…
Stock Participation Accreting Redemption Quarterly-pay Securities (SPARQS), a service mark of Morgan Stanley, represent another form of equity-linked structured notes. The SPARQS generally provide the investors with higher interest payments that substantially exceed the market interest rate for corresponding standard bonds, in exchange for a call feature. The call option limits the potential appreciation of the SPARQS in case the underlying common stock price rises. Moreover, the SPARQS are mandatorily convertible at maturity that entail more risk than ordinary debts due to the possibility that investors might not receive their principal amount in case the underlying common stock price declines. This paper derives a general pricing formula for the SPARQS using the binomial tree approach. An empirical test of a specific SPARQS issue indicates that the binomial tree model is quite accurate.
While subordinated debt can be used to increase market discipline on banks by playing a corporate governance role in the presence of a federal safety net that encourages…
While subordinated debt can be used to increase market discipline on banks by playing a corporate governance role in the presence of a federal safety net that encourages risk taking, it also has implications for banks’ loan sales. Using two measures of banks’ loan sales activity, we find greater proportions of subordinated debt increase the likelihood that banks engage in loan sales activity, and are associated with greater proportions of loan sales. Our results have implications about banks’ lending efficiency as well as their transparency and disclosure policies that could play a role in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy.
Recent research has examined the effect of the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, more commonly known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLB), on the market value…
Recent research has examined the effect of the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, more commonly known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLB), on the market value of U.S. commercial banks, life insurers, property-liability insurers, thrifts, finance companies, and securities firms. This study fills a gap in our understanding of the Act by measuring the price and trading volume effects of the GLB on U.S.-listed foreign banks. A primary contribution of this study is to examine the role, if any, of two corporate governance perspectives, the stakeholder (code law), and shareholder (common law) models, in a cross-sectional analysis of foreign bank market reaction to the GLB.
Using a generalized least squares (GLS) portfolio approach, Corrado's rank statistic, and confirmed by the traditional market model approach, we find significant negative share price reactions to certain legislative announcements surrounding the passage of the GLB. Trading volume reactions corroborate the significant share price responses. In general, our results indicate that investors in foreign banks reacted negatively to key legislative action. In a cross-sectional analysis, younger, higher-risk foreign banks with less concentrated ownership and more subordinated debt from countries with higher quality accounting standards appear to have more positive (or less negative) share price reactions.
Perhaps the most difficult objection raised by skeptics of the real options approach concerns the apparent lack of market transactions that would verify that real options…
Perhaps the most difficult objection raised by skeptics of the real options approach concerns the apparent lack of market transactions that would verify that real options have actual value. Although there are no organized exchanges with publicly disclosed prices, there are nevertheless several mechanisms for buying and selling real options. Observing these could offer important advantages in the quest for enhancing the role of real options in financial decision making:•demonstrate that real options can indeed add value•in some cases even gain a sense of the amount of value added by real options•offer expert appraisers methods for improved estimation of the value of a business when real options are part of the organizational capital
The most frequently used method for buying or selling real options occurs when a product that includes real options is sold to customers (often at a premium above the price of a comparable product that does not include real options). Real options that are part of the organizational capital of a business are part of the package in an acquisition (or minority equity position). In this chapter we examine several cases of such transactions.
In response to common criticisms on the appropriateness of mean-variance in asset allocation decisions involving hedge funds, we offer a mean-Gini framework as an…
In response to common criticisms on the appropriateness of mean-variance in asset allocation decisions involving hedge funds, we offer a mean-Gini framework as an alternative. The mean-Gini framework does not require the usual normality assumption concerning return distributions. We also evaluate empirically the differences in allocation outcomes between the two frameworks using historical data. The differences turn out to be significant. The evidence thus confirms the inappropriateness of the mean-variance framework and enhances the attractiveness of mean-Gini for this asset class.
This chapter adopts value at risk (VaR) to analyze the hedge timing issue. Suppose that a producer, at a give time, recognizes the possible need of a futures contract for risk reduction purpose. Should the producer trade in the futures market immediately or should he wait? Conditions are characterized under which delaying the hedge decision is preferred as it produces a smaller VaR. For an efficient futures market, it appears that the producer is better off delaying the hedge decision as long as possible. However, strong backwardation promotes early hedging.