Search results

1 – 10 of 143
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Andrew Goddard and Tausi Ally Mkasiwa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the budgeting practices in the Tanzanian Central Government. New budgeting reforms were introduced following exhortations from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the budgeting practices in the Tanzanian Central Government. New budgeting reforms were introduced following exhortations from the bodies such as the UN, the World Bank and the IMF and reflect the new public management (NPM).

Design/methodology/approach

A grounded theory methodology was used. This methodology is inductive, allowing phenomena to emerge from the participants rather than from prior theory. This ensures both relevance and depth of understanding.

Findings

The principal research findings from the data concern the central phenomenon of “struggling for conformance”. Tanzanian Central Government adopted innovations in order to ensure donor funding by demonstrating its ability to implement imposed budgetary changes. Organizational actors were committed to these reforms through necessity and struggled to implement them, rather than more overtly resisting them.

Research limitations/implications

The research is subject to the usual limitations of case study, inductive research.

Practical implications

This research has several implications for policy-makers of NPM and budgetary reforms. These include the recognition that the establishment of the rules and regulations alone is not adequate for the successful implementation of budgetary and NPM reforms and should involve a comprehensive view of the nature of the internal and external environment.

Originality/value

There are few empirical papers of NPM accounting practices being implemented in the public sector of developing countries and none at all based in Tanzania. The paper identifies the existence of struggling to conform to reforms rather than resistance identified in prior research.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Andrew Goddard

This paper is an attempt to theorise the recent changes to accounting practices in local government in the UK. The principal theory used is regulation theory, which…

Downloads
1602

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to theorise the recent changes to accounting practices in local government in the UK. The principal theory used is regulation theory, which incorporates aspects of hegemony theory and governance. Regulation theory attempts to explain major changes in national economic structures by examining underlying systems of capital accumulation, regulation and hegemony. Central to these structures and systems are the role and operation of the state and its institutions. Changes in economic structures will result in conditions, which favour different governance structures for these institutions; comprising markets, hierarchies, civil society, and heterarchic combinations. Several researchers in these areas have characterised “traditional” institutional practices as Fordist and are associated with a particular approach to regulation. However, the underlying economic structure is seen to be in crisis and a new Post‐Fordist regime may be emerging. Post‐Fordism is associated with new institutional practices, particularly decentralised management, contracting out of public services, extended use of public private partnerships and concerns for value for money, charters and league tables. The introduction of such practices may therefore be explained by the changes in underlying structures rather than as a teleological development of accounting. Moreover, some researchers have characterised such changes as representing a fundamental shift from government to governance. The very nature of the relationship between governance, accountability and accounting may therefore have also changed. These issues are explored in the paper.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2015

Andrew Goddard and Siasa Issa Mzenzi

This paper examines accounting practices and legitimacy in Tanzanian Local Government Authorities (LGAs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines accounting practices and legitimacy in Tanzanian Local Government Authorities (LGAs).

Methodology/approach

It uses data from multiple sources, including interviews, observations and documents, to provide theoretical and practical understanding on how accounting has been practiced and the conditions which sustain its undertaking. It applies a grounded theory method to develop a theory systematically from the raw data.

Findings

The principal research findings from the data concern the central phenomenon of ‘manipulating legitimacy’. This involved the purposeful and deliberate use of accounting techniques to influence and control (and sometimes even to falsify) the perceived reasonableness of the Councils’ operations. The paper revealed that the effective operations of the Tanzanian LGAs were highly constrained by their context. This had forced the LGAs’ officials to use important accounting practices such as budgeting, financial reporting, auditing and performance measurement, to manipulate the organisational legitimacy, a process which ensured the availability of resources to both LGAs and the individual officials.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the research is that the data was collected from a limited number of local authorities in just one developing country. It is hoped that future research in other developing countries will be undertaken to broaden and deepen our understanding.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the importance of manipulating legitimacy in understanding accounting practices in local government.

Details

The Public Sector Accounting, Accountability and Auditing in Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-662-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2015

Andrew Goddard and John Malagila

The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge and obtain an understanding of the phenomenon of public sector external auditing (PSEA) in Tanzania.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge and obtain an understanding of the phenomenon of public sector external auditing (PSEA) in Tanzania.

Methodology/approach

The paper used a grounded theory method informed by a critical approach. It used data from multiple sources including interviews, observations and documents, to provide a theoretical and practical understanding of PSEA in Tanzania. The theoretical aspects were developed ‘in vivo’ and were also informed by the Habermasian concept of colonisation.

Findings

The principal research findings from the data concern the central phenomenon of managing colonising tendencies in PSEA which appeared to be the core strategy for both the government and external auditors. While the government appeared to manage the National Audit Office of Tanzania (NAOT) appearance and exploited the legitimising features of PSEA, external auditors manoeuvred within colonising tendencies and attempted to maintain the ‘audit supremacy’ image. PSEA in Tanzania encountered colonising tendencies because of weak working relationship between the NAOT and other accountability agencies, inconsistencies in governance and politics, the culture of corruption and secrecy, dependence on foreign financing and mimicking of foreign models. To coexist within this colonising environment, external auditors managed their relationship with auditees and the complexities of PSEA roles. Managing colonising tendencies resulted into obscured subordination of PSEA, contributing to cosmetic accountability and growing public interest in PSEA.

Research limitations/implications

It is hoped that future research in other countries, in and beyond Africa, will be undertaken to broaden and deepen our understanding of the external auditing of public sector entities.

Originality/value

The paper combines grounded theory with a critical approach to understand PSEA in a developing country.

Details

The Public Sector Accounting, Accountability and Auditing in Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-662-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Martin Broad and Andrew Goddard

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the internal performance management of UK universities.

Downloads
1948

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the internal performance management of UK universities.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured interviews were undertaken with numerous staff within each university, attendance at key meetings and reviews of documentation. Grounded Theory was adopted to analyse the information obtained to understand how the strategy and accounting interacted with performance systems in the universities studied.

Findings

An amorphous, decoupled system was identified with poor feedback loops resulting in a lack of accountability and ownership of the system.

Research limitations/implications

The research reported on the experiences of two universities through case study analysis. Further research is required to understand the extent to which the issues reported here are more widespread and the implications of such.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that the challenge for policy makers/university management is to facilitate a change in the managerial weltanshauung to one where the environment is more conducive to performance management in a constructive manner

Originality/value

The notion of managerial weltanshauung in universities is developed and discussed in relation to nurturing performance management. The paper will be of interest to university managers and policy makers.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Andrew Goddard and Jackie Powell

Reports a case study investigating the use of naturalistic methodologyto enhance the accountability of strategic decision making in acommunity health service. Discovers…

Downloads
1794

Abstract

Reports a case study investigating the use of naturalistic methodology to enhance the accountability of strategic decision making in a community health service. Discovers the possibilities and problems of stakeholders′ evaluation to improve accounting information. The study involved a district health psychogeriatric service in southern England over the period 1988‐1992.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Andrew Goddard

This paper is the first of several emanating from a study of the relationship between accounting, governance and accountability in local government in the UK. A grounded…

Downloads
7240

Abstract

This paper is the first of several emanating from a study of the relationship between accounting, governance and accountability in local government in the UK. A grounded theory methodology was used to discover participants' perceptions of these phenomena in four UK local government organisations. The budget system was found to be the most important organizational process with respect to accountability and this paper focuses on the core relationship discovered between budgetary practices and accountability perceptions. The way in which accountability was perceived and the budgetary practices were quite distinct in each of the four case studies. A grounded theory of this relationship is developed from the case studies to explain these differences. Bourdieu's concept of habitus is used to further develop this grounded theory and to suggest a more formal theory.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Andrew Goddard and Mussa Juma Assad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of accounting in non‐governmental organisations (NGOs). It seeks to understand accounting processes and…

Downloads
7066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of accounting in non‐governmental organisations (NGOs). It seeks to understand accounting processes and reporting practices in NGOs and the conditions that sustain those processes and practices. NGOs have become important institutions in world affairs but accounting research has not developed significant interest in their operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research executes a grounded theory strategy as the principal methodology for the inquiry. Fieldwork was undertaken in three Tanzanian NGOs.

Findings

The research established the importance of accounting in the process of navigating organisational legitimacy. This was achieved due to its important role in symbolising organisational competence. Two principal strategies were employed by organisations in navigating legitimacy – building credibility and bargaining for change.

Originality/value

The paper makes a contribution to the limited empirical research into accounting in NGOs in developing countries and to grounded theory, accounting research. The principal finding, that in the NGOs studied the primary purpose of accounting was its symbolic use in navigating legitimacy and that it has a minimal role to play in internal decision making, is an important finding for practice as well as for understanding and knowledge. Finally, the paper sheds light on accountability in NGOs by narrating how the phenomenon is constructed and perceived by organisations and stakeholders. Future research should extend our understanding of these phenomena across a broader range of NGOs to incorporate differences in geographical location, religious affiliation and also include Northern donor organisations.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Andrew Goddard

This paper is an investigation of the interrelationship between organisational culture and financial control systems (FCS). A comparison is made between three local…

Downloads
1324

Abstract

This paper is an investigation of the interrelationship between organisational culture and financial control systems (FCS). A comparison is made between three local government organisations using an interpretive research methodology. Several researchers have advocated the adoption of an interpretive approach, among others, to accounting research. The first part of the paper discusses the relevant literature and outlines the research framework used to analyse the empirical data. This framework is based on the approach to studying organisational culture developed by Whipp et al. in 1989 which views culture in terms of a set of core beliefs and four modes of expression of these beliefs. Further, the framework acknowledges the dynamic nature of culture and uses the concept of social dramas to study the interrelationship between culture and the FCS. The second part describes the cultures and the financial control systems of the three organisations and discusses the interrelationship between them using the research framework. The final part summarises the findings, discusses a general model of the interrelationships and suggests some directions for more research in this area.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Andrew Goddard

This paper uses Gramsci’s theory of hegemony to analyse the development of the public sector accounting profession and accounting practices in the UK since the…

Downloads
4588

Abstract

This paper uses Gramsci’s theory of hegemony to analyse the development of the public sector accounting profession and accounting practices in the UK since the nineteenth‐century. Three periods of hegemony and accounting development are identified and the relationship between the two phenomena is discussed. The analysis emphasises the non‐teleological development of the public sector accounting profession and accounting techniques and clearly places them within an ideological framework which is itself the outcome of a complex interrelation between economic crises, class interests and the state. The paper concludes that the public sector accounting professional body in the UK has played an important hegemonic role in constituting and reflecting ideologies and in reflecting the coercive and consensual approaches adopted by the state. The paper also sets an agenda for a research programme which looks at specific crises and hegemonies in more depth.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

1 – 10 of 143