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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Alper Ekinci, Xiaoxiao Han, Andrew Gleadall and Andrew Allan Johnson

This paper aims to establish an appropriate annealing method, which is necessary for shape stability and to evaluate their potential degradation performance of 1-, 3- and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish an appropriate annealing method, which is necessary for shape stability and to evaluate their potential degradation performance of 1-, 3- and 5-layer material extruded polylactic-acid specimens by enhancing their thermal and mechanical properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The distortion of each layered printed specimen subjected to degradation was calculated in x- and y-direction. Each layered specimen was subjected to annealing at 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 2 h and at 80°C for 1, 4, 8 and 16 h. Thermal, molecular weight and mechanical properties were calculated using, differential scanning calorimetry, gel permeation chromatography and tensile testing machine, respectively.

Findings

In the x-direction, distortion was 16.08 mm for one-layer non-annealed printed specimens and decreased by 73% and 83% for 3- and 5-layer, respectively, while each layered non-annealed specimen subjected to degradation at 37°C for one month. Within the outlined study, annealing treatment enhances properties such as the degree of crystallinity (%χ) up to 34%, Young’s modulus (E) by 30% and ultimate tensile strength by 20% compared to the non-annealed specimens.

Practical implications

The future research accomplishments will be concentrated on the design, development and optimisation of degraded biomedical implants using material extrusion thin films including drug delivery system and fixation plates.

Originality/value

The printed thin specimens subjected to degradation were investigated. This research developed a new understanding of the effect of the annealing temperature and time on the mechanical, thermal and molecular weight properties for each layered specimen.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Andrew Allan Johnson, Guy Bingham and Candice Majewski

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) standards while testing a series of laser sintered (LS) planar specimens using instrumented test apparatus.

Design/methodology/approach

Planar test specimens were LS in single-layer thicknesses ranging from 1.00 to 15.00 mm in four material powder categories – DuraForm® virgin, DuraForm 50/50 mix, DuraForm EX® virgin and DuraForm EX 50/50 mix. All specimens were tested using instrumented drop test apparatus and were impacted with established Stanley Tools 1992 trimming blades to the UK HOSDB KR1-E1 stab impact energy level.

Findings

The research demonstrated that a minimum single planar specimen thickness of 11.00 mm, manufactured from DuraForm EX 50/50 mix powder, was required to provide protection against the HOSDB KR1-E1 level of stab impact energy. The alternative powder mixes tested within this experiment demonstrated poor levels of stab protection, with virgin powder specimens demonstrating no protection up to 15.00 mm, whereas DuraForm 50/50 mix specimens demonstrating inconsistent performances.

Originality/value

This paper enhances on existing literature surrounding the manufacturing and testing of additive manufacturing (AM) stab-resistant armour by adding further rigour to the testing of AM body armour specimens. In addition, this research establishes key foundation characteristics which could be utilised for the future development of bespoke AM body armour garments.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Zheng Gong, Xinming Qian and Mengqi Yuan

Stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) can protect the human body from injury as a result of stabbing by sharp projectiles. However, in its current design SRBA, it has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

Stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) can protect the human body from injury as a result of stabbing by sharp projectiles. However, in its current design SRBA, it has not been widely adopted for use, because of its weight and poor flexibility. Herein, this paper aims to detail a new type of SRBA that is inspired by the armor plating of mammals and is fabricated using laser sintering (LS) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This new type of SRBA was fabricated using LS technology. The laser sintered SRBA was subjected to a stab resistance performance test that conformed to the GA 68-2008 Chinese National Standard. The stab resistance response of the novel structured, stab resistance test plates in this study was analyzed using the using the AUTODYN explicit module in ANSYS-Workbench.

Findings

The structure of the novel stab resistance plate was designed and the optimum structural parameters were tested, discussed and achieved. The mechanism of dissipation of the impact energy by the pyramidal structures of the novel SRBA was studied, and it was found that this structure dispersed the kinetic energy of the knife and minimized the structural damage to the plate. Interlinks inspired by the pangolin hierarchy structure were designed and used to fabricate a large piece of laser sintered body armor.

Originality/value

High-performance laser sintered stab resistance plate was produced via the material and structure studies, which could reduce 40 per cent weight on the stab resistance body armor and increase the wearability.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2019

Ali Soltani, Andrew Allan, Ha Anh Nguyen and Stephen Berry

This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and their travel behaviours in both countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper extensively reviewed most of existing literature work on commuting patterns of higher education students with referring to different studies around the world and then used it to build a theoretical framework and conceptual model to relate the travel patterns of students to built environment, personal demographics and environmental knowledge/consideration. An online survey was used with 230 students at Mawson Lakes campus of University of South Australia and Beiyangyuan campus of Tianjin University (China). Statistical tests (i.e. mean test, one-way analysis of variance, factor analysis) were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The study reveals that a high dependence on private vehicles amongst students at the Mawson Lakes campus, whilst a more environmentally sustainable modal choice dominated at the Beiyangyuan campus. Those who studied at Mawson Lakes campus tended to have stronger involvement in environmental activities than their counterparts at Beiyangyuan campus, which presented a clear association between environmental awareness and the travel behaviours of the sampled students.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on two respective campuses of both universities in Australia and China. Future work could be expanded with students at all campuses of two universities.

Practical implications

The study affirmed the value of nurturing environmental awareness for students in both universities to encourage more environmentally sustainable travel behaviours amongst students. The paper provides policy recommendations such as establishing infrastructure, and facilities for new stream of mobility included sharing bike schemes, which would be very practical due to flexibility and cost effectiveness within University campuses. The paper attempted to transfer lessons from Chinese bike friendly society to Adelaide’s car dominated campus.

Originality/value

This study brings remarkable contributions as comparing university students’ travel behaviours in two different nations. It is the first one in Australia, which links the environmental concerns among university students with their travel behaviours. The paper was successful in getting the gap between theory and practice filled to some extent. The paper has a capability to be used as an evidence-base work in the area of sustainability education.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-723-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Gina L. Miller, Naresh K. Malhotra and Tracey M. King

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1305-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Allan Metz

President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the…

Abstract

President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the Clinton presidency, systematically have sought to undermine this president with the goal of bringing down his presidency and running him out of office; and that they have sought non‐electoral means to remove him from office, including Travelgate, the death of Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster, the Filegate controversy, and the Monica Lewinsky matter. This bibliography identifies these and other means by presenting citations about these individuals and organizations that have opposed Clinton. The bibliography is divided into five sections: General; “The conspiracy stream of conspiracy commerce”, a White House‐produced “report” presenting its view of a right‐wing conspiracy against the Clinton presidency; Funding; Conservative organizations; and Publishing/media. Many of the annotations note the links among these key players.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property…

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Facilities, vol. 19 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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