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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Nelson K.H. Tang, Andrew Agnew and Oswald Jones

Small and medium‐sized firms (SMFs) can make valuable economic and social contributions through their distinctive capabilities for innovation. However, SMFs rarely possess…

Abstract

Small and medium‐sized firms (SMFs) can make valuable economic and social contributions through their distinctive capabilities for innovation. However, SMFs rarely possess adequate R&D resources and are therefore dependent upon external technological information. We believe that collaboration between higher education institutions (HEIs) and SMFs has considerable potential for strengthening innovatory activity in the UK. However, very little detailed information is available about the process of technology transfer from the perspectives of HEIs and SMFs. This paper examines ways in which HEIs establish links with SMFs as a means of commercializing their scientific and technological research. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 37 HEIs on technological alliances with SMFs. In addition, a number of interviews were carried out with individuals responsible for marketing HEI science and technology.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1980

PETER JACKAMAN

It is difficult today, after a decade which has seen the introduction of the 35 hour week, when people spend more time at recreation than at work; and when as a result of…

Abstract

It is difficult today, after a decade which has seen the introduction of the 35 hour week, when people spend more time at recreation than at work; and when as a result of these developments there has been a substantial growth in interest in leisure and its uses, to realise the difficulties which must have faced the pioneers of nineteenth century public library service in establishing a service which was accessible to its intended clientele, the working class; in particular the difficulty of establishing adequate opening hours. Today because of changing economic and social circumstances there has been a tendency to curtail the opening hours of libraries. While this has been done with some reluctance in most cases, it has been accompanied by very little discussion of its impact on library services and the users of those services. Historically the problem of opening hours for public libraries has been very little discussed. The general tendency has been to dismiss the matter as a very minor problem. Allred for example writes These libraries were soon opened at hours convenient to the working man.

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Library Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2016

Andrew S. Fullerton, Michael A. Long and Kathryn Freeman Anderson

Research on the social determinants of health demonstrates that workers who feel insecure in their jobs suffer poorer health as a result. However, relatively few studies…

Abstract

Research on the social determinants of health demonstrates that workers who feel insecure in their jobs suffer poorer health as a result. However, relatively few studies have examined the relationship between job insecurity and illegal substance use, which is closely related to health. In this study, we develop a theoretical model focusing on two intervening mechanisms: health and life satisfaction. Additionally, we examine differences in this relationship between women and men. We test this model using logistic regression models of substance use for women and men based on longitudinal data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The results indicate that job insecurity is associated with a significantly higher probability of illegal substance use among women but not men. We interpret this as further evidence of the gendering of precarious employment. This relationship is not channeled through health or life satisfaction, but there is evidence that job insecurity has a stronger association with illegal substance use for women with poorer overall health.

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Research in the Sociology of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-405-1

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Bahana Wiradanti, Stephen Pettit, Andrew Potter and Wessam Abouarghoub

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on peripheral ports, hub ports and concentration – deconcentration factors. This is an issue, as investments in port…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on peripheral ports, hub ports and concentration – deconcentration factors. This is an issue, as investments in port development in more peripheral locations are challenging due to the difficult financial situation currently faced by the maritime industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a narrative literature review focusing on peripherality in the context of seaports and transport. Moreover, it gathers the reasons why ports concentrate–deconcentrate, and how these factors evolve over time.

Findings

This paper develops a future research agenda for peripheral ports.

Practical implications

The paper provides insights for ports in developing countries in their efforts to upgrade their port facilities and infrastructure.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the research on ports in peripheral locations which have been under studied compared to larger hub ports.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Peter Leasure

The purpose of the current study is to examine the applicability of general strain and procedural justice theories to retail banking deviance in an effort to improve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to examine the applicability of general strain and procedural justice theories to retail banking deviance in an effort to improve compliance programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This objective is achieved through a qualitative case study of active members of the retail banking industry guided by three research questions. First, how do participants view their companies' current compliance programs? Second, what types of crime or deviance are present in the data in which general strain and procedural justice theories are indicated? Third, what ethics and compliance recommendations can be made from the identified deviance and underlying theories?

Findings

Results indicate that current ethics and compliance programs are viewed as having serious flaws. Results also show the presence of a large amount of fraud based deviance in which both general strain and procedural justice theories seem to be implicated. Specific compliance enhancements are proposed in light of these findings.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the first to examine white collar crime deviance and ethics and compliance programs in the retail banking industry. Conducting research in specific industries is key as findings from a study in a particular industry may not extrapolate to another. Further, the current study uses a qualitative approach, which allows a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, with participants who have committed some form of deviance and are active members in their industry. Because of this fact, this study has the potential to provide new and different insights than a study conducted using students or other such participants and hypothetical scenarios.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2018

George R. Goethals

Abstract

Details

Realignment, Region, and Race
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-791-3

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2018

John M. Violanti, Sherry L. Owens, Erin McCanlies, Desta Fekedulegn and Michael E. Andrew

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of law enforcement suicide research from 1997 to 2016.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of law enforcement suicide research from 1997 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The PRISMA systematic review methodology was implemented. A SCOPUS search identified a total of 97 documents. After applying all exclusion criteria, the results included a list of 44 articles in the review.

Findings

Overall, studies investigating law enforcement suicide rates show conflicting results, with some studies showing lower suicide rates among law enforcement, some showing higher rates, and some showing no difference to comparison populations. Recurring research themes were lack of an appropriate comparison group, and small statistical power, particularly for minority and female officers. Stressors related to suicide among police included lack of organizational support, traumatic events, shift work, stigma associated with asking for help, or problems associated with fitting in with the police culture. Problems associated with domestic relationships and alcohol use were commonly mentioned as precursors to suicide or as correlates of suicidal ideation and were hypothesized to arise from stressful working conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations in law enforcement suicide research include the lack of theory, under-reporting of suicides, and guarded survey responses from police officers. Future directions in police suicide research include investigating etiological factors such as past adverse life and family experiences, social-ecological variation in suicide, or differences in suicide rates within the law enforcement occupation.

Practical implications

Police work, given chronic and traumatic stress, lack of support, danger, and close public scrutiny is a fertile occupation for increased suicide risk. Awareness of the scope of the problem and associated risk factors can help to initiate prevention programs.

Originality/value

This paper provides a long-term review of literature regarding police suicidality, with suggestions for research and prevention.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Viviana Andreescu and Gennaro F. Vito

The main objective of the study is to identify the effects of various sources of job-related strains on police managers' turnover intentions.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the study is to identify the effects of various sources of job-related strains on police managers' turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from a sample of American police managers (N = 179) were used to construct a path model that estimated the direct and indirect effect of environmental and organizational stressors on turnover intentions while considering the mediating role of negative emotionality.

Findings

Although most of the surveyed police managers (61%) did not report turnover intentions, those who did were more likely to have experienced burnout, frustration and/or emotional drain. Strenuous relationships with police supervisors and work–life imbalances were the main sources of these negative emotions. Turnover intentions were expressed by managers at the operational/technical level (sergeants) and by those who perceived a lack of procedural justice at the agency level. Highly educated managers were significantly less likely to report burnout and turnover intent.

Research limitations/implications

Since this analysis is based on a relatively small convenience sample of police managers, readers should interpret the results cautiously.

Practical implications

To reduce turnover in police organizations, police administrators should implement and follow policies and procedures to ensure a fair, consistent and just treatment of all employees.

Originality/value

This is one of the few recent studies that focused exclusively on police managers' turnover intentions.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Stephen A. Bishopp, John Worrall and Nicole Leeper Piquero

The purpose of this paper is to examine the utility of general strain theory in explaining the relationship between organizational stress and police deviance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the utility of general strain theory in explaining the relationship between organizational stress and police deviance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a non-random sample of 1,389 police officers in three large cities in Texas. The survey instrument used for this research was the Police Work Experience Survey. Results from regression analyses are presented.

Findings

Findings showed that the organization influenced police misconduct, but misconduct was dependent upon the specific type of strain encountered.

Research limitations/implications

Results show that instances of police deviance depend on the types of strains encountered. Additionally, anger plays a significant role when examining organizational strain. Police administrators should move to reduce organizational strains to reduce instances of police misconduct.

Originality/value

Currently, there is very little theoretical work in understanding police misconduct. And no studies have drawn linkages between organizational stressors and self-reported officer misconduct. At a time when police behavior is at the forefront of the social policy reform, the examination of potential correlates of police misconduct is the first step toward controlling it.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Joanne Savage and Amanda Murray

In the present paper we explore the long-term influence of childhood neglect on violent behavior in the transition to adulthood. In particular, we test whether neglect is…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present paper we explore the long-term influence of childhood neglect on violent behavior in the transition to adulthood. In particular, we test whether neglect is spuriously related to violence due to their common association with academic achievement, physical abuse, and general offending. We then ask whether neglect has an indirect effect on violence through its impact on parental attachment, alcohol use, emotional negativity, academic achievement, or staying in school.

Methodology/approach

We use two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and employ both regression models and INDIRECT, a syntax file that allows for the testing of indirect effects using SPSS (Preacher & Hayes, 2008).

Findings

We find that the long-term association between childhood neglect and violence in the transition to adulthood is robust in models controlling for GPA, physical abuse, and other forms of offending. Neglect did not have an indirect effect on violence through attachment, negative emotionality, or academic achievement but did have indirect effects on violence through its association with staying in school and with alcohol use.

Research implications

This set of analyses was exploratory in nature. Further research on neglect should be undertaken, using finely tuned measures and research questions. In addition, our findings imply that the association between neglect and later violent behavior may be intertwined with certain dynamics of physical abuse and alcohol use, which should be further studied.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

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