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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Kiyoshi Murata, Andrew A. Adams and Ana María Lara Palma

This paper aims to introduce a cross-cultural study of the views and implications of Snowden’s revelations about NSA/GCHQ surveillance practices, undertaken through…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a cross-cultural study of the views and implications of Snowden’s revelations about NSA/GCHQ surveillance practices, undertaken through surveys administered in eight countries. The aims and academic and social significance are explained, and justification is offered for the methods used.

Design/methodology/approach

Pilot surveys were deployed in two countries, following which revised versions were deployed in eight countries (including expanded collection in the original pilot countries). Quantitative analysis of suitable answer sets (Yes/No; Likert scales) and quantitative analysis (interpretation of free text answers) were performed.

Findings

Through the pilot survey studies conducted in Japan and Spain, the academic significance and meaningfulness, as well as social significance of the project, were confirmed.

Practical implications

The results of the cross-cultural study are expected to contribute not only to the advance of surveillance study but also to the enhancement of ordinary, non-technical people’s awareness of state surveillance and their proactive approach to protecting their own rights and dignity from covert intrusion by government agencies.

Originality/value

This paper clarifies the importance and methodologies of investigating the social impact of Snowden’s revelations on youngsters’ attitudes toward privacy and state surveillance in a cross-cultural analysis framework. Although a few other studies have assessed the impact of Snowden’s revelations, these have mostly focussed on the USA, so this is the only study to date considering that impact on a broad international scale, using highly similar surveys to ensure comparability.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Kiyoshi Murata, Yasunori Fukuta, Yohko Orito and Andrew A. Adams

This paper aims to deal with the attitudes towards and social impact of Edward Snowden’s revelations in Japan, taking the Japanese socio-cultural and political environment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the attitudes towards and social impact of Edward Snowden’s revelations in Japan, taking the Japanese socio-cultural and political environment surrounding privacy and state surveillance into account.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey of 1,820 university students and semi-structured follow-up interviews with 56 respondents were conducted, in addition to reviews of the literature on privacy and state surveillance in Japan. The outcomes of the survey were statistically analysed, and qualitative analyses of the interview results were also performed.

Findings

Snowden’s revelations have had little influence over Japanese youngsters’ attitudes towards privacy and state surveillance, mainly due to their low level of awareness of the revelations and high level of confidence in government agencies.

Practical implications

The study results imply a need for reviewing educational programmes for civic education in lower and upper secondary education.

Social implications

The results of this study based on a large-scale questionnaire survey indicate an urgent necessity for providing Japanese youngsters with opportunities to learn more about privacy, liberty, individual autonomy and national security.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to investigate the social impact of Snowden’s revelations on Japanese youngsters’ attitudes towards privacy and state surveillance as part of cross-cultural analyses between eight countries.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Matthias Kiefer, Edward A.E. Jones and Andrew T. Adams

Shareholders and managers can work in a hierarchy in which principals attempt to control the actions of agents to achieve the wealth objective. Alternatively, shareholders…

Abstract

Purpose

Shareholders and managers can work in a hierarchy in which principals attempt to control the actions of agents to achieve the wealth objective. Alternatively, shareholders and managers can work together as a cooperative team in which shareholders provide financial capital and managers provide human capital. The authors aim to examine the different implications for value creation provided by the two approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

By comparing the literature on the value implications of the incomplete contracting framework and control arrangements in principal-agent hierarchies, the authors identify deviations from optimal outcomes and suggest solutions.

Findings

The review indicates that a cooperative framework has some advantages over the hierarchical model. The stability of human capital and the relationship between managers and shareholders can be enhanced when shareholders provide capital in increments which vest over time and latitude for renegotiation of agreements is built into contracts.

Practical implications

By surrendering control using stock options programmes, managers are free to invest in relationship-specific assets. Shareholders can control the provision of capital by withdrawing investment if insufficient returns are realized, i.e. if stock options do not meet vesting requirements. The market can then be left to do its work.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original review of literature on cooperation and hierarchies in the shareholder–manager relationship and proposes solutions to identified deviations from optimal outcomes.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Gehan Gunasekara, Andrew A. Adams and Kiyoshi Murata

This study aims to test the attitudes towards and social consequences of Edward Snowden’s revelations in New Zealand, taking into account New Zealand’s socio-cultural and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the attitudes towards and social consequences of Edward Snowden’s revelations in New Zealand, taking into account New Zealand’s socio-cultural and political environment especially as regards privacy and state surveillance.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey of 66 university students and semi-structured follow-up interviews with 18 respondents were conducted, in addition to reviews of the literature on privacy and state surveillance in New Zealand. The outcomes of the survey were statistically analysed and qualitative analyses of the interview results were also performed.

Findings

Despite a lack of detailed knowledge concerning Snowden’s revelations and a relative lack of knowledge of domestic law enforcement agencies, as well as those devoted to protecting human rights and privacy, the revelations have had a noticeable effect on New Zealand youngsters’ attitudes towards privacy and state surveillance, mainly evidenced in their willingness to emulate Snowden’s actions and in their changed online behaviour, thereby demonstrating a chilling effect.

Practical implications

The study results suggest younger New Zealanders are aware of and concerned with their privacy and that the government should better publicise the existing mechanisms for protecting human rights and privacy as well as for whistle-blowing by individuals to give effect to the aspirations of younger citizens in particular.

Social implications

The results of this study, based on a questionnaire survey, indicates that state surveillance and other threats to privacy are issues of concern to younger New Zealanders and that better public education is needed as to the mechanisms that are available for citizens to protect their privacy and human rights.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to investigate the social impact of Snowden’s revelations on New Zealand youngsters’ attitudes toward privacy and state surveillance as part of cross-cultural analyses between eight countries.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrew A. Adams, Kiyoshi Murata and Ana María Lara Palma

This paper aims to present the baseline English survey used in the other papers in this special issue.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the baseline English survey used in the other papers in this special issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey includes yes/no, Likert scale and free text responses, which were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.

Findings

Respondents to the survey expressed divergent views of whether they would emulate Snowden, even though most in all countries believed he had helped rather than harmed society.

Originality/value

This is the only such broad survey on attitudes to Snowden of which the authors are aware.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrew A. Adams, Kiyoshi Murata, Yasunori Fukuta, Yohko Orito and Ana María Lara Palma

A survey of the attitudes of students in eight countries towards the revelations of mass surveillance by the US’ NSA and the UK’s GCHQ has been described in an…

Abstract

Purpose

A survey of the attitudes of students in eight countries towards the revelations of mass surveillance by the US’ NSA and the UK’s GCHQ has been described in an introductory paper and seven country-specific papers (The People’s Republic of China and Taiwan are combined in a single paper). This paper aims to present a comparison of the results from these countries and draws conclusions about the similarities and differences noted.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was deployed in Germany, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, The People’s Republic of China, Spain, Sweden and Taiwan. The original survey was in English, translated into German, Japanese and Chinese for relevant countries. The survey consists of a combination of Likert scale, Yes/no and free-text responses. The results are quantitatively analysed using appropriate statistical tools and the qualitative answers are interpreted (including, where appropriate, consolidated into quantitative results).

Findings

There are significant differences between respondents in the countries surveyed with respect to their general privacy attitudes and their willingness to follow Snowden’s lead, even where they believe his actions served the public good.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to resource limitations, only university students were surveyed. In some countries (Germany and New Zealand), the relatively small number of respondents limits the ability to make meaningful statistical comparisons between respondents from those countries and from elsewhere on some issues.

Practical implications

Snowden’s actions are generally seen as laudable and having had positive results, among the respondents surveyed. Such results should give pause to governments seeking to expand mass surveillance by government entities.

Originality/value

There have been few surveys regarding attitudes to Snowden’s revelations, despite the significant press attention and political actions that have flowed from it. The context of attitudes to both the actions he revealed and the act of revelation itself is useful in constructing political and philosophical arguments about the balance between surveillance activity for state security and the privacy of individual citizens.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Kiyoshi Murata, Yasunori Fukuta, Andrew A. Adams and Dang Ronghua

This study aims to investigate how Snowden’s revelations are viewed by young people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan through questionnaire surveys of and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how Snowden’s revelations are viewed by young people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan through questionnaire surveys of and follow-up interviews with university students in the two countries, taking into account the histories and current status of state surveillance in these countries and the current complicated and delicate cross-strait relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire surveys of 315 PRC and 111 Taiwanese university students (a majority studying in those places but a few studying abroad) and semi-structured follow-up interviews with 16 master’s course students from the PRC and one from Taiwan (all studying at Meiji University in Japan) were conducted, in addition to reviews of the literature on privacy and state surveillance in the PRC and Taiwan. The outcomes of the survey were statistically analysed and qualitative analyses of the interview results were also performed.

Findings

Youngsters living in the PRC had greater interest in and more knowledge about Snowden’s revelations than those living in Taiwan, and the revelations were positively evaluated in both countries as serving public interest. However, PRC students indicated they were less likely to emulate Snowden than those from Taiwan did.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to investigate the social impact of Snowden’s revelations on PRC and Taiwanese youngsters’ attitudes towards privacy and state surveillance as part of cross-cultural analyses between eight countries.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrew A. Adams, Sarah Hosell and Kiyoshi Murata

As part of an international study of knowledge of and attitudes to Snowden’s revelations about the activities of the National Security Agency/Government Communications…

Abstract

Purpose

As part of an international study of knowledge of and attitudes to Snowden’s revelations about the activities of the National Security Agency/Government Communications Headquarters, this paper aims to deal with Germany, taking its socio-cultural and political environment surrounding privacy and state surveillance into account.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was answered by 76 German University students. The quantitative responses to the survey were statistically analysed as well as qualitative considerations of free text answers.

Findings

Snowden’s revelations have had an important influence over German students’ attitudes toward privacy and state surveillance, and show concerns over the privacy risks associated with Internet activity.

Practical implications

The study results imply a need to build a collective awareness of the importance of the right to privacy and its responsibilities, the available technological options for individuals to exert their own privacy and security and the democratic means to agree and enforce appropriate legal restrictions on state surveillance.

Social implications

Young Germans support Snowden’s actions and would be more willing to emulate him in Germany than in the USA. While many believe that people must give up some privacy and freedom for security, few seem to believe that current US or German approaches are valid and justified.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to investigate the social impact of Snowden’s revelations on German students’ attitudes toward privacy and state surveillance as part of cross-cultural analyses between eight countries.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrew A. Adams, Mario Arias-Oliva, Ana María Lara Palma and Kiyoshi Murata

This study aims to analyse the impacts of Edward Snowden’s revelations in Spain focusing on issues of privacy and state surveillance. This research takes into…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the impacts of Edward Snowden’s revelations in Spain focusing on issues of privacy and state surveillance. This research takes into consideration the Spanish context from a multidimensional perspective: social, cultural, legal and political.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the Spanish privacy and state surveillance situation. Responses to a questionnaire were collected from 207 university students studying at Universitat Rovira i Virgili or Burgos University. The quantitative responses to the survey were statistically analysed as well as qualitative considerations of free-text answers.

Findings

The survey outcomes demonstrate that a majority of respondents are aware of Snowden’s revelations, but only a few have even considered taking serious actions to improve their online privacy. One of the most relevant findings is that Spanish citizens find it acceptable to lose privacy and be subject to state surveillance if that provides a benefit in security.

Practical implications

The research points out the importance of privacy in a multicultural environment. A sensitised society is a keystone for the healthy and balanced development of state surveillance policy and practice.

Social implications

Training programmes are a critical dimension to ensure awareness across society regarding privacy and digital technologies. Suitable educational policies and curricula at all levels should be fostered.

Originality/value

Privacy and state surveillance based on information and communication technologies is an emerging research topic with important consequences for social values and ethics. This study provides an overview of Spanish higher education students’ attitudes in these areas.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos, Ryoko Asai, Andrew A. Adams and Kiyoshi Murata

This study aims to map Swedish students’ attitudes towards Snowden’s revelations and their effects in the political and socio-cultural environment of Sweden.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to map Swedish students’ attitudes towards Snowden’s revelations and their effects in the political and socio-cultural environment of Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was answered by 190 Swedish university students. The quantitative responses to the survey and qualitative considerations of free text answers were statistically analysed.

Findings

Swedish students had a high level of knowledge about the Snowden revelations; they actively searched for information, gave a positive judgement of Snowden’s actions and were willing to follow his example in Sweden, although not in the USA. They trusted their country and most of its institutions and authorities except for secret service agencies and the internet and computer software companies.

Practical implications

This study could be used as a design of education for university students, especially in information technology programmes.

Social implications

The study can be used for developing and applying policies on privacy, surveillance and whistle-blowing.

Originality/value

This study is part of a bigger international study to map students’ attitudes towards Snowden’s revelations and their opinions about privacy, surveillance and whistle-blowing opening up for cross-cultural analyses.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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