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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Andres Velez-Calle

To date, there has been little research about the degree of correspondence between partner equity ownership and partner representation on boards of joint ventures (JVs)…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, there has been little research about the degree of correspondence between partner equity ownership and partner representation on boards of joint ventures (JVs). It is generally assumed that partners’ share equals board representation in percentage. This paper aims to explore various instances of deviation from the above norm.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a unique database of 259 JV contracts extracted from the US Securities and Exchange Commission, and by drawing from resource dependency and transaction cost theories, this manuscript explores the factors that increase or decrease the deviation between equity share and board representation.

Findings

The results show that international JVs (IJVs) tend to deviate more, while JVs with a deadlock clause, a large board and based in a stable country deviate less from the degree of correspondence between equity share and board representation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the alliance and governance literatures by identifying factors that influence the degree of correspondence between partner investment (equity share) and control through board of director representation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Jessica Salmon, Salma Zaman, Emine Beyza Satoglu, Fernando Sanchez-Henriquez and Andres Velez-Calle

This paper examines the role of co-inventor collaboration with China and/or the USA on a country's increase in centrality in global knowledge networks. It also explores…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the role of co-inventor collaboration with China and/or the USA on a country's increase in centrality in global knowledge networks. It also explores the role of specific institutional factors – corruption and intellectual property rights (IPR) protection – on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

In the study, co-inventor data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) applications have been used to construct networks of technological knowledge collaboration at the country level over the years 2002–2015. Using eigenvector centrality as the dependent variable, the study uses fixed effect regression analyses on a panel of 171 countries, contributing to recent debates on knowledge networks and international cooperation.

Findings

Building on research in economic development, innovation and social network theory, this research finds that co-patenting with Chinese inventors is positively related to a country's centrality in global knowledge networks and that this relationship is negatively moderated by collaboration with the current most central knowledge network – namely that of the USA – suggesting a substitution effect. It also finds a partial substitution between institutional factors, IPRs protection and transparency, and collaboration with China on a country's knowledge centrality.

Practical implications

Regarding policymakers, the findings can be used to encourage international collaboration for increased access to new sources of knowledge that fosters innovation while keeping a close eye on local institutions, especially emerging economies that want to increase their international knowledge network centrality.

Originality/value

This study creates a unique panel data set and extends the social networks approach in international business literature, focusing on institutional characteristics related to participation in knowledge networks.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Andres Velez-Calle, Misha Mariam, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo Jimenez, Julia Eisenberg and Sandra Milena Santamaria-Alvarez

There is a generalized belief that cultural differences can have more negative consequences than benefits within the international business (IB) literature. This study…

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Abstract

Purpose

There is a generalized belief that cultural differences can have more negative consequences than benefits within the international business (IB) literature. This study argues that cultural differences are not perceived as constrains in millennial global virtual teams (GVTs). Additionally, using the theory of cooperation and competition and the motivated information processing perspective, the purpose of this paper is to uncover the process by which millennials working in GVTs address various challenges to ensure effective functioning and accomplishment of desired team outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes a data set of 503 project journals from the global enterprise experience, a virtual team competition. It uses qualitative content analysis tools and secondary data sources.

Findings

The authors find that for millennials, cross-cultural issues are not the predominant challenge when working in GVTs, unlike the prevailing understanding in the IB literature. This is because contrary to expectations, cross-cultural problems are often not experienced, while other team phenomena become more relevant, such as interpersonal and task-based issues. In addition, the paper describes how members of GVTs apply distinct challenge reconstruction and solution generation cognitive schemes to deal with both, expected and unexpected challenges.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on virtual teams by identifying how millennials and post-millennials deal with the challenges embedded in the GVT interaction context by simplifying the unfamiliarity associated with the broader context rather than addressing each issue in isolation. Finally, the paper elaborates on factors that highlight the positive outcomes of multicultural teams while making cultural differences less salient in contemporary GVT contexts.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Andres Velez-Calle, Fernando Sanchez-Henriquez and Farok Contractor

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between multinationality and firm performance (M-P) in Latin American companies, commonly referred to as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between multinationality and firm performance (M-P) in Latin American companies, commonly referred to as multilatinas. The study conceptualizes the depth (intensity) and breadth (geographical scope) of internationalization and examines their effect on financial performance. Although scholars have studied how internationalization in various contexts and industries affects performance, little is known about firms in Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an analysis of the effect of the depth and breadth of multilatina internationalization on financial performance by creating a database using information from America Economia, a specialized Chilean magazine that publishes an annual ranking of multilatinas. Additional data came from the Osiris database of Bureau Van Dijk and Compustat. The hypotheses were tested using an autoregressive heteroskedastic model.

Findings

The results show that the extent of the depth and breadth of internationalization affects financial performance. Multilatinas’ depth of internationalization has a curvilinear (U-shaped) impact on performance while breadth has an inverted curvilinear impact on performance.

Research limitations/implications

The theory portion and results expand the literature on firm internationalization and performance by distinguishing between two types of international firm expansion, depth and breadth, and discussing how each contributes to different stages of the three-stage theory of multinationality and performance.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that multilatinas benefit from their regional expansion, but outside Latin America, expansion has a negative effect on financial performance. They also show that firms can implement different types of internationalization strategies in terms of intensity and scope to achieve better performance.

Objetivo

Este artículo analiza la relación entre la multinacionalidad y el desempeño de la empresa (M-P) en compañías latinoamericanas, conocidas como multilatinas. El estudio conceptualiza la profundidad (intensidad) y extensión (alcance geográfico) de la internacionalización, y examina su efecto en el desempeño financiero. Aunque varios investigadores han estudiado cómo la internacionalización en diversos contextos e industrias afecta el rendimiento, poco se sabe con respecto a las empresas en América Latina.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Los autores realizaron un análisis del efecto producido por la profundidad y extensión de la internacionalización de la multilatina en el desempeño financiero, mediante la creación de una base de datos con información de América Economía, una revista chilena especializada que publica anualmente un ranking de multilatinas. Datos adicionales provienen de la base de datos Osiris de Bureau Van Dijk y de Compustat. Las hipótesis fueron probadas usando un modelo heterocedástico autoregresivo.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que el grado de profundidad y extensión de la internacionalización afectan el rendimiento financiero. La profundidad de internacionalización de las multilatinas tiene un efecto curvilíneo (en forma de U) sobre el desempeño financiero, mientras que la extension geográfica tiene un efecto curvilíneo invertido en dicho desempeño.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

La sección teórica y los resultados extiende la literatura sobre la internacionalización y el desempeño de las empresas al distinguir entre dos tipos de expansión internacional: profundidad y extensión. También se discute cómo cada uno contribuye a las diferentes etapas de la teoría de la multinacionalidad y desempeño.

Originalidad/Valor

Los resultados indican que las multilatinas se benefician de su expansión regional. Sin embargo, fuera de América Latina, dicha expansión tiene un efecto negativo sobre el desempeño financiero. También se señala que las empresas pueden implementar diferentes tipos de estrategias de internacionalización en términos de intensidad y alcance para lograr un mejor desempeño.

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Luis Eduardo Torres, Carlos Enrique Ruiz, Bob Hamlin and Andres Velez-Calle

– The purpose of this study was to identify what Colombians perceive as effective and least effective/ineffective managerial behavior.

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1088

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to identify what Colombians perceive as effective and least effective/ineffective managerial behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted following a qualitative methodology based on the philosophical assumptions of pragmatism and the “pragmatic approach” (Morgan, 2007). The critical incident technique was used to generate data from a purposive sample of 27 managers and non-managerial employees located in Medellin and Bogota, Colombia.

Findings

The results of this study suggest that effective managers in Colombia are those who are supportive, caring, considerate, participative, understanding, communicative and flexible, and are also good problem solvers.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on the perceptions of Colombian managers and non-managerial employees only. Therefore, the description of effective and least effective/ineffective managers in Colombia could be highly value-laden from the national cultural perspective. Hence, it is recommended that further research should be carried out to explore the perceptions of international managers who have frequently interacted or worked with Colombian managers.

Originality/value

The results of this study have practical implications for Colombian managers and international managers who manage the Colombian workforce. For Colombian managers, this study provides insight into what is considered effective or least effective/ineffective managerial and leadership behavior. The findings provide useful information on foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) that have operations in Colombia. MNCs can use the results of this study to create effective management development models for their expatriates in Colombia.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Younggeun Lee, Andres Felipe Cortes, Yiming Zhuang and Pol Herrmann

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social capital on organizational ambidexterity in the context of emerging economies. Moreover, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social capital on organizational ambidexterity in the context of emerging economies. Moreover, this paper aims to study the moderating influence of absorptive capacity on the relationship between social capital and organizational ambidexterity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two studies using survey data collected from 97 Ecuadorian and 100 Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Findings

The authors found that social capital, the extent to which organizational members interact, collaborate and share knowledge with one another and with external actors, has a positive effect on the simultaneous implementation of exploratory and exploitative innovations (i.e. organizational ambidexterity). Moreover, the authors found that absorptive capacity positively strengthens the impact of social capital on organizational ambidexterity.

Originality/value

Drawing on the knowledge-based view and the innovation literature, the authors theoretically argue the importance of social capital and absorptive capacity for SMEs to develop and manage exploratory and exploitative innovations simultaneously in emerging economies of different cultures. The authors empirically test proposed hypotheses in Ecuador and China, two emerging markets with important cultural differences, and show the relevance of social capital in multiple settings.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Enrique Ogliastri, John Ickis and Ramiro Casó

The purpose of this study is to test the universality of the behavioral theory of negotiation developed in the United States, particularly the integrative/distributive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test the universality of the behavioral theory of negotiation developed in the United States, particularly the integrative/distributive models, and to find negotiators' prototypes in international negotiations conducted in a Latin American country.

Design/methodology/approach

An open questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 104 resident foreigners (expatriates) who reported the negotiation patterns of Costa Ricans. The qualitative data were coded in 52 variables (inte-rater reliability Fleiss' Kappa K= 0.65). A total of ten variables were selected to measure distributive/integrative patterns of negotiations. Latent class analysis (LCA) uncovered the latent structure of negotiations.

Findings

(1) The distributive (70% found in the sample) and integrative (30%) negotiation models hold in this culture. (2) The incorporation of handling emotions and interpersonal orientation in the integrative model seem to be an important theoretical and practical trend.

Research limitations/implications

(1) A larger sample size is needed to compare with data from other countries of the region and the world. (2) The use of emotions and interpersonal orientation in the integrative negotiation paradigm require further investigation. As practical implications, detailed negotiation advice is offered to Costa Ricans as well as to expatriates working there.

Originality/value

To identify negotiation patterns in an understudied region of the world, the distributive/integrative models of the behavioral theory of negotiations are a key focus with which to extend the literature. There are important elements of culture within the negotiation patterns, in line with trends of an evolving paradigm of integrative crosscultural negotiations.

Objetivos

Verificar la utilidad en un contexto latinoamericano de la teoría del comportamiento en las negociaciones, particularmente los modelos distributivo e integrativo. Identificar prototipos de negociadores latinoamericanos en un contexto intercultural.

Metodología

Se recogió una muestra de conveniencia mediante un cuestionario cualitativo a 104 extranjeros que viven y negocian en Costa Rica, quienes identificaron la manera como les negocian los locales. Estas encuestas fueron codificadas para tener una base de datos cuantitativa (coeficiente entre-evaluadores Fleiss de Kappa = 0.65) de 52 variables. Se escogieron 10 variables asociadas a los modelos integrativo y distributivo de negociación. Se realizó un Análisis de Clases Latentes en los datos (LCA en inglés) para descubrir la estructura latente de las negociaciones.

Resultados

(1) Los modelos de negociación distributivo (70% encontrado en la muestra) e integrativo (30%) tienen cabida en esta cultura. (2) El modelo integrativo de negociación está asociado al manejo de emociones y la orientación interpersonal, parte de una tendencia teórica y práctica en las negociaciones interculturales.

Limitaciones/Implicaciones

(1) Se requiere ampliar la muestra, y comparar con datos de otros países de la región y del mundo. (2) Orientar un estudio teórico sobre el manejo de emociones y la orientación interpersonal en el paradigma del modelo integrativo. Como implicaciones prácticas, se presentan consejos de negociación para los costarricenses, y también para los extranjeros que trabajan en el país.

Originalidad

Reconocer los patrones de negociación en una región poco estudiada. Los modelos distributivo e integrativo de la teoría del comportamiento en las negociaciones son una base para ampliar la literatura. Añadir el manejo de emociones y la orientación interpersonal al paradigmático modelo integrativo parece marcar una tendencia teórica y práctica de la negociación intercultural.

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