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The purpose of this paper is to investigate magneto-mechanical coupling occurring in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The authors study influence of the strength…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate magneto-mechanical coupling occurring in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The authors study influence of the strength of the background field on the coupling of mechanically isolated, conductive cylindrical structures and the so-called shields. This coupling has a strong impact on frequency-dependent thermal losses occurring in the shield structures which are of high importance in MRI systems.
In the investigations, numerical methods are applied. First, finite element methods taking into account the full magneto-mechanical coupling are used to investigate the coupled physical phenomena. As these calculations may be time-consuming, several approximate predictive methods are derived. Modal expansion factors and participation factors are based on combinations of structural eigenmode calculations and eddy current calculations using Biot–Savart representations of the dynamic gradient field. In addition, a parallelism factor expressed in terms of the shield vibrations is defined to measure the coupling between the distinct cylinders.
It is found that the strength of the background field strongly influences the coupling of the distinct shields, which strongly increases the parallelism of the shield vibrations. Furthermore, modal expansion and participation factors are significantly influenced, caused by frequency shifts due to magnetic stiffening and increased magnetic coupling.
The current work is limited to the modal expansions of a single shield. This needs to be extended in the future as comparison of modal expansion factors and finite element simulation indicate.
The defined factors estimating parallelism and modal participation in magneto-mechanical coupling are original work and studied for the first time.
Using semantic differential ratings of evaluation, potency and activity of American and German undergraduates, I will test the general hypothesis that if both cultures…
Using semantic differential ratings of evaluation, potency and activity of American and German undergraduates, I will test the general hypothesis that if both cultures agree on the sexual‐ erotic denotation of sentiments, sentiments will differ disproportional in their affective representations. It will be demonstrated that there is an interconnection of role‐identities and emotions. Affective representation between sexual role‐ identities differs in German and American culture. Emotions associated with sexual‐erotic role‐identities have a deviant and violent quality for Americans. The same role‐identities associate with emotions of impression and passion for German subjects.
This paper provides a review of theoretical perspectives and empirical research on the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions [M&A], with a particular focus on the…
This paper provides a review of theoretical perspectives and empirical research on the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions [M&A], with a particular focus on the performance implications of cultural differences in M&A. Despite theoretical and anecdotal evidence that cultural differences can create major obstacles to achieving integration benefits, empirical research on the performance impact of cultural differences in M&A yielded mixed results: while some studies found national or organizational cultural differences to be negatively related to measures of M&A performance, others observed a positive relationship or found cultural differences to be unrelated to M&A performance. We offer several explanations for the inconsistent findings of previous research on the performance impact of cultural differences in M&A and develop a model that synthesizes our current understanding of the role of culture in M&A. We conclude that the relationship between cultural differences and M&A performance is more complex than previously thought and propose that, rather than asking if cultural differences have a performance impact, future research endeavors should focus on how cultural differences affect M&A performance.
The production of steel pipes with guaranteed external collapse pressure (e.g. high collapse casings for oil wells) requires the implementation of an accurate process…
The production of steel pipes with guaranteed external collapse pressure (e.g. high collapse casings for oil wells) requires the implementation of an accurate process control. To develop that process control it is necessary to investigate how different parameters affect the external collapse pressure of the pipes. Experimental/numerical techniques implemented to investigate the collapse behavior of steel pipes are presented. The discussion of the experimental techniques includes the description of the facilities for performing external pressure collapse tests and the description of an imperfections measuring system. The numerical techniques include 2D and 3D finite element models. The effects on the value of the pipes’ external collapse pressure of their shape, residual stresses and material properties are discussed.
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
Implicit motives are capacities to experience specific types of incentives as rewarding and specific types of disincentives as aversive (Atkinson, 1957; Schultheiss, 2008). Because implicit motives determine which stimuli are affectively “hot”, they also orient the person's behavior toward those stimuli, energize behavior aimed at attaining (or avoiding) them, and select stimuli that predict their proximity and behaviors that are instrumental for attaining (or avoiding) them (McClelland, 1987).
The purpose of this study is to explore the role of social media usage among business-to-business sales professionals in China. Specifically, the authors seek to define…
The purpose of this study is to explore the role of social media usage among business-to-business sales professionals in China. Specifically, the authors seek to define and explore the unique ways in which Chinese salespeople use social media, with a special emphasis on the role of guanxi. Guanxi is a complex cultural construct that revolves around the exchange of favors to build trust and connection for business purposes.
Three in-depth interviews of sales managers from two industries along with survey data from 42 pharmaceutical sales representatives were collected to gain an understanding of the general usage and attitudes toward social media in the sales process in China.
Results indicated that virtually all the salespeople in the sample were highly familiar with social media and integrated it into the sales process. Furthermore, all participants indicated that their companies were highly supportive of the use of social media with their customers. More importantly, salespeople in China view social media as a critical tool in building guanxi with their customers. Findings from this exploratory study are used to create a conceptual framework for understanding the important role of social media in building guanxi in China.
While the sample is limited to three managerial interviews and 42 survey responses, the data indicated a near universal acceptance and use of social media among Chinese salespeople. Most importantly, social media appears to be the modern gateway to the ancient and culturally unique construct of guanxi that is absolutely indispensable to successful business-to-business sales performance in China.
The structural challenges within China make trust and emotional connection essential to any potential business relationship. Trust is at the core of guanxi. Any firm hoping to succeed in China must understand guanxi and the use of Chinese social media to help build it. This study adds to the knowledge and understanding of guanxi and begins to elucidate the uses of social media as a tool to build and maintain it.
Social media appears to be the modern gateway to the ancient and culturally unique construct of guanxi that is absolutely indispensable to successful business-to-business sales performance in China. This study deepens our understanding of not only guanxi but also how the modern phenomenon of social media is affecting it.
This is one of very few studies to investigate the use of social media among salesforces in China. More importantly, the authors know of no other study linking social media with guanxi.
Although mergers and acquisitions have been a fundamental part of business for the last three decades, they have been increasingly used in recent times as a strategic tool for growth, dealing with excess resource capacity, enhancing the base and scale of operations for competitive advantage and the like. One area of increasing concern in M&A research, however, has been in the area of understanding the integration process and how this might lead to enhanced performance and to the “2+2=5” hoped-for effect of M&As.