This article explores two gaps in the literature on European Union (EU) crises: firstly, the external effects of the crises on EU actorness and its relations with other…
This article explores two gaps in the literature on European Union (EU) crises: firstly, the external effects of the crises on EU actorness and its relations with other countries and regions and, secondly, the uniqueness of the EU crises when compared to other world regions. The article explores these questions and argues that the crises did affect external views on the EU and its role in the world due to the influence of third country perspectives on its actorness and its “intermestic nature,” but that the EU is not the only regional organization in crisis. As the case of Latin American regionalism shows, other regions have suffered from common systemic factors at the global level as well as from the decreased EU support of regionalism abroad.
New mobility services, referred to here as car sharing services with electric vehicles fuelled by renewable energies, could serve as an essential part of energy and…
New mobility services, referred to here as car sharing services with electric vehicles fuelled by renewable energies, could serve as an essential part of energy and climate strategies to lessen the impact of transport. However operating a car sharing scheme with electric vehicles is more expensive and offers users less autonomy than car sharing powered by internal combustion engines. Thus municipalities and operators need to answer one critical question: how to identify and address target groups to make the scheme successful?
We focus on user requirements and attitudes towards services that integrate electric vehicles and public transport. Firstly we argue, based on an extensive literature analysis, that attitude-based market segmentation is crucial for a successful implementation of integrated e-mobility services. In the literature review we compare 23 empirical studies that employ a segmentation approach concerning their content and methodologies. Secondly, we address this need by presenting a methodology to derive attitude-based mobility typologies developed during a two-year field trial of an e-car sharing service in Berlin (Germany).
We share results from a representative market segmentation survey in Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich (n = 2,400). Among the six clusters, six attitude-based mobility typologies, we separated three groups specifically inclined to use mobility services: ‘the innovative technology-loving multioptionals’ (20% of the sample), ‘flexible car-lovers’ (21%) and ‘the ecological bicycle and Public Transit-lovers’ (17%).
Attitude-based approaches like the one used in this study could support the development of integrated mobility services by adding the view of a specific target group. A range of approaches exist which use different kinds of item batteries to measure mobility related attitudes with the aim to develop target group specific services.
This study will provide essential information for the development of policies and interventions in support of new mobility services.
In this chapter, we explore whether various true, endogenous social cycle theories share common patterns and characteristics.
We examine a number of prominent social theories describing cyclical patterns, and attempt to abstract an ideal type common to all of them, based on the idea of two populations disrupting each other and adjusting to the other’s disruptions.
At the core of such theories we typically find a variation of a two-population model. In these theories, cycles emerge when one of the populations seems to disrupt the other population’s plans, leading to recurring adjustments and disruptions that constitute the cycle.
Finding such commonalities in the world of theories can be useful for several reasons. For one thing, noticing that two theories share certain traits may help us understand each of them better. Furthermore, we show that agent-based modelers using modern object-oriented programming techniques can benefit from finding common patterns in theories.
Both Bolivia and Uruguay broke ranks with the global drug prohibition regime by introducing novel drug policies. State control of the production and supply of coca and…
Both Bolivia and Uruguay broke ranks with the global drug prohibition regime by introducing novel drug policies. State control of the production and supply of coca and cannabis represents a clear departure from both the spirit and the letter of the international drug conventions. Although, the rationale, processes and outcomes of policy change were distinctive in many regards, this chapter posits that there are conceptual resemblances. In both countries, the leadership of a charismatic and idiosyncratic president has to be considered. Furthermore, in both countries, mobilisation and activism were also decisive. Lastly, in both countries novel drug policy responded to specific problems that decision-makers faced. Approaching drug policy reforms in Bolivia and Uruguay in terms of personal leadership, mobilisation and policy problems provides a useful analytical first-cut to assess the continuity and change in drug policy observable elsewhere. Additionally, scrutinising the reasons and motivations for undertaking drug policy reform also allows to better understand each country’s behaviour on the international stage.
This study aims to examine the (overt) arguments and (covert) myths the Business Accounting Council (BAC) members have used to lobby over controversial accounting issues…
This study aims to examine the (overt) arguments and (covert) myths the Business Accounting Council (BAC) members have used to lobby over controversial accounting issues, such as the application of fair value accounting (FVA) and the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Japan.
The authors used a content analysis to examine 85 statements included in multiperiod BAC meeting minutes and 68 articles prepared by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) representatives from Japan.
The results reveal that together with the arguments, myths were created and amplified by opponents of FVA and the Financial Services Agency to hide the latter’s strong regulatory power. They created these myths, using covert stories of the importance of manufacturing activities and tax accounting (for small- and medium-sized enterprises [SMEs]), to oppose mandatory IFRS adoption in Japan and, thus, to maintain vested rights in preparing the Japanese generally accepted accounting principles and Japanese accounting standards for SMEs.
First, this study contributes to the lobbying literature by focusing on the coalition (network) effect of influential stakeholder groups. Second, although lobbying activities have been investigated mostly using comment letters, this study reviews multiperiod BAC meeting minutes and articles prepared by IASB representatives from Japan. Third, the study examines both overt arguments and covert myths, both of which are important in unmasking the fundamental structures of power within influential organizations, such as government agencies and standard-setters.
Managing supply risk is gaining in importance in the tightly interconnected global economy. Identifying the relevant risks is the foundation of any risk management…
Managing supply risk is gaining in importance in the tightly interconnected global economy. Identifying the relevant risks is the foundation of any risk management process. Therefore, the purpose of this paper first is to provide a short introduction to supply risk management, before focussing on the identification of such risks in more detail. A holistic framework of the identified supply risks, which distinguishes between risk dimensions and risk factors in manufacturing upstream supply networks, is proposed.
This study applies a mixed methods research approach. Data are collected based on a structured literature review in combination with the analysis of company-specific documents and semi-structured expert interviews. Subsequently, a deductive content analysis is carried out to derive a holistic framework of supply risks, adapted to the manufacturing industry. For the external validation of the conceptual supply risk framework, additional experts from several manufacturing companies were consulted.
Based on the definition and delimitation of supply risk, a categorization of supply risks is developed. The relevant literature, as well as expert interviews, lead to the distinction of six supply risk dimensions: quality, delivery, collaboration, economic, ambience and compliance. A total of 27 risk factors can be assigned to these dimensions. A holistic foundation for the management of supply risk is thus created.
This study provides a holistic framework of relevant supply risks in the context of the manufacturing industry. This overview of identified risks offers a novel perspective on risk in manufacturing supply networks that can be helpful in researching assessment and mitigation strategies. Despite the high relevance and popularity of this field of research, such an overview with a focus on manufacturing had not yet been made available in the literature. Building thereon, management approaches can now be developed to handle the risk arising from the upstream of the supply network.