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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Andrea Graf and Marion Mertesacker

The purpose of this paper is to develop recommendations for measures assessing intercultural training needs for international human resource management. Based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop recommendations for measures assessing intercultural training needs for international human resource management. Based on scientific as well as application‐oriented criteria the aim is to select six measures assessing general intercultural competencies and with the help of behaviour ratings in interactive intercultural exercises to evaluate the psychometric quality and practicability of the questionnaires for training purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Psychometric quality including prognostic power of ICSI, FLCS, NVCCS, ISAS, TIHK, and SIB was tested by correlating subjects' questionnaires results with observations of their actual behaviour in intercultural exercises.

Findings

Satisfying psychometric quality and prognostic validity of almost all measures was found. Especially TIHK, ICSI, and FLCS score well for assessing training needs whereas the results for SIB were problematic.

Research limitations/implications

The study observed student participants of the same culture. Replication studies should examine large samples of different cultural backgrounds and manager populations.

Practical implications

Human resource managers may benefit from gaining knowledge about which measures to use for identifying employee's weaknesses in intercultural competence in order to create tailor‐made training interventions.

Originality/value

The study is the first providing information about the psychometric quality, including predictive power, of six measures, that assess intercultural skills to detect intercultural training needs.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Andrea Graf

Training designs are critical to the success of intercultural training programmes. A common typology for classifying intercultural training designs distinguishes among the…

Abstract

Training designs are critical to the success of intercultural training programmes. A common typology for classifying intercultural training designs distinguishes among the following dimensions: experiential discovery versus didactic expository and culture‐specific versus culture‐general training. The purpose of this paper is to assess different intercultural training designs referring to this typology. First, a concept of intercultural competence is developed. Based on this concept experiential training designs are favoured as they allow to train the cognitive, affective and behavioural component of intercultural competencies. In the second part of the paper an empirical study in the USA and Germany is conducted in order to assess whether the degree of intercultural competencies differs between the two nations. As no considerable differences can be identified the benefit of culture‐general training is discussed. Significant skills to be focused on in intercultural training are described and specific measures for pre‐assessment devices in intercultural training are presented.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 28 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Andrea Graf, Sabine T. Koeszegi and Eva‐Maria Pesendorfer

Negotiators from Asia are increasingly confronted with exchange partners from other regions, particularly Europe. The European culture differs from the Asian culture in…

Abstract

Purpose

Negotiators from Asia are increasingly confronted with exchange partners from other regions, particularly Europe. The European culture differs from the Asian culture in many regards, one major aspect being distinct levels of power distance (hierarchy versus egalitarianism). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of power distance in electronic negotiations between Asia and Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes an experimental study with a sample of 126 participants investigating the impact of power distance on strategies applied by Asian and European buyers and sellers in computer‐mediated negotiations.

Findings

Significant effects of power distance in electronic negotiations were identified. Culture confirms to play a significant role in negotiations. The results indicate that negotiation schemes differ depending on the cultural dimension power distance in Asia and Europe. In the hierarchical (Asian) culture, sellers show more efforts in negotiations, while buyers apply more power‐related negotiation strategies but also tend to take more responsibility. In contrast, in the egalitarian (European) culture, buyers prefer negotiation behavior spreading power.

Research limitations/implications

First, use of a student sample engaging in a negotiation simulation might restrain the generalizability of the findings. Second, the authors investigated only two cultures in Asia and Europe.

Originality/value

The paper describes an experimental study comparing negotiators from Asia and Europe in order to analyze whether culture plays a significant role in electronic negotiations between Asia and Europe. The authors focus on power distance as the main cultural dimension.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Andrea Graf, Sabine T. Koeszegi and Eva‐Maria Pesendorfer

Intercultural interfirm relationships have become a new challenge for international management. The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in computer‐mediated…

Abstract

Purpose

Intercultural interfirm relationships have become a new challenge for international management. The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in computer‐mediated negotiation behavior between participants who come from nations which differ as regards two major cultural values: individualism and collectivism.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study with a sample containing 170 negotiators with different cultural backgrounds; it comprises content analysis; and multivariate analysis of variance models.

Findings

Comparing negotiators from Asian, North American, and European cultures, it is found that people who come from an individualist culture exhibit different negotiation strategies to individuals from a collectivist culture.

Practical implications

Based on the results management may sensitize negotiators in intercultural interfirm relationships to their counterparts' communication strategies.

Originality/value

The paper highlights how negotiators' cultures affect their strategic orientation.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

René Schalk and Petru L. Curşeu

The paper aims to introduce the papers in this special issue which highlight the importance of cooperation in organizations, and outline future research directions.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to introduce the papers in this special issue which highlight the importance of cooperation in organizations, and outline future research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual approaches to cooperation in organizations are described and a brief outline is given to each paper in the special issue.

Findings

This special issue brings together studies that enhance our theoretical understanding of cooperation, addressing core issues related to the role of cultural differences, virtual communication, team processes, leader behavior, and the impact of norms on cooperation.

Practical implications

Factors that facilitate or hinder cooperation in organizations are highlighted, and suggestions on how to deal with those issues in practice are provided. The papers facilitate understanding of the role of cultural differences, communication, team processes, and leader behavior on cooperation in organizations.

Originality/value

The paper provides an introduction to the special issue.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Abstract

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Scans the top 400 management publications in the world to identify the most topical issues and latest concepts. These are presented in an easy‐to‐digest briefing of no more than 1,500 words.

Findings

In today's business world, technology rules the roost and global transactions are increasingly becoming the norm. Effective cross‐cultural relations have, therefore, never been more important. But, as philosopher Friedrich Nietzche once pointed out, communicating successfully often involves more than simply using the same language.

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Rolf Dieter Schraft, Birgit Graf, Andreas Traub and Dirk John

Based on the successful hardware and software architecture of Care‐O‐bot, a new generation of mobile robots has recently been designed at Fraunhofer Institute of…

Abstract

Based on the successful hardware and software architecture of Care‐O‐bot, a new generation of mobile robots has recently been designed at Fraunhofer Institute of Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (IPA). The robots have been created to communicate with and to entertain visitors in a museum. Their tasks include welcoming visitors, leading a guided tour through the museum or playing with a ball. In this article the hardware platform of the robots and their features such as navigation and communication skills, their safety concept and handling are outlined. Further, the underlying control software of the robots is described. Finally, the application of the robots at the Museum für Kommunikation in Berlin is presented. The robots have been running in this museum daily since 25 March 2000 without noteworthy problems.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2014

Andrea Martínez-Noya and Esteban García-Canal

This paper aims to, through the disintegration of the innovation process in this paper, attempt to shed light on what are some of the distinctive features of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, through the disintegration of the innovation process in this paper, attempt to shed light on what are some of the distinctive features of this phenomenon, such as: Who is outsourcing R&D? What types of R&D services are being outsourced across the R&D value chain and to whom? Where are firms outsourcing these services? and Why do firms decide to outsource them? Outsourcing practices of some stages of the R&D process to specialized providers have been gaining momentum during the past years even by firms operating in high-tech sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this paper stem from an original international survey on R&D services outsourcing. This survey includes a sample of 182 US and European Union firms competing in technology-intensive industries.

Findings

This study provides evidence of the existence of a global outsourcing market that covers practically all the R&D stages and is widely used by technological firms. However, it highlights the importance of multinationality to be able to use R&D outsourcing as a tool for value creation.

Originality/value

Despite the relevance of this phenomenon, previous studies tend to analyze the R&D function as a whole. However, through the disintegration of the innovation process, this paper provides original international data which helps to analyze the real magnitude and scope of this R&D offshore outsourcing process at the transactional level.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Gianpaolo Abatecola, Andrea Caputo and Matteo Cristofaro

Why and how do cognitive distortions in managerial decision making occur? All organizations are imperfect systems (Katz and Kahn, 1966), with wrong decisions often just…

Abstract

Purpose

Why and how do cognitive distortions in managerial decision making occur? All organizations are imperfect systems (Katz and Kahn, 1966), with wrong decisions often just round the corner. As a consequence, addressing these important questions continues to be particularly lively in the management development area, especially in terms of its intended contribution to the de-biasing activity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide the current scientific dialogue on the topic with updated lenses, which can also be innovative from some aspects.

Design/methodology/approach

The review framework is based on the recent, impactful article on biases in managerial decision making by Kahneman et al. (2011), and on Bazerman and Moore’s (2013) perspective on emanating heuristics, considered as the causes of biases. Accordingly, the authors derive four intertwined thematic clusters of heuristics, through which the authors systematically group and critically analyze the management literature mostly published on the topic since 2011.

Findings

From the analyzed clusters the authors propose an integrative framework of emanating heuristics, which focuses on the co-evolving relationships and potentially self-reinforcing processes in and between them.

Originality/value

The value of the contribution is threefold: from a methodological perspective, to the authors’ knowledge, the studies adopted as the basis of the analysis have not yet been simultaneously used as a comprehensive ground for updated reviews on this topic; from a conceptual perspective, the emerging integrative co-evolutionary framework can help explain the dangerous connections among cognitive traps and emanating heuristics; and from a practical perspective, the resulting framework can also be helpful for future de-biasing attempts in the business arena.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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